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Sonographic images of the gallbladder enable satisfactory approximation of gallblad-der volume using the sum-of-cylinders method. The sum-of-cylinder measurements, however, are moderately cumbersome and time consuming to perform. In this investigation , in vitro and in vivo testing was done to determine that a simple ellipsoid method applied to sonographic(More)
Cerebral cortical processing of information relayed via visceral afferents is poorly understood. We determined and compared cortical activity caused by various levels of rectal distension in healthy male and female subjects. Twenty-eight healthy, young (20-44 yr) volunteer subjects (13 male, 15 female) were studied with a paradigm-driven functional magnetic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients has been documented by evaluation of perceived stimulations that can reflect abnormalities of both sensory neurocircuitry and cognitive processes. The presence of actual neurohypersensitivity in human beings has not been documented separately. Because subliminal(More)
Swallowing normally elicits a superior-anterior excursion of the hyoid that contributes to elevation of the larynx and opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. The magnitude of hyoid movements, however, has not been quantitated with respect to the volume of the swallowed bolus. In this study, we determined the magnitude of superior and anterior movements(More)
Cerebral cortical activity associated with perceived visceral sensation represents registration of afferent transduction and cognitive processes related to perception. Abnormalities of gut sensory function can involve either or both of these processes. Cortical registration of subliminal viscerosensory signals represents cerebral cortical activity induced(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare cerebral cortical representation of experimentally induced reflexive swallow with that of volitional swallow. Eight asymptomatic adults (24-27 yr) were studied by a single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Reflexive swallowing showed bilateral activity concentrated to the primary sensory/motor(More)
Cortical representation of swallow-related motor tasks has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we elucidated and compared these cortical representations to those of volitional swallow using block-trial and single-trial methods. Fourteen volunteers were studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical activation during both(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Although brain registration of subliminal somatic stimulations such as masked visual stimuli and their influence on electrical and hemodynamic measures of cerebral activity have been reported previously, there have been no reports on cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. Because studies evaluating the(More)
Swallowing difficulty is a common complaint in the elderly and, although there are data for the biomechanics of liquid swallows, little is known about solid bolus motion, or kinematics, in the elderly. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to characterize and compare solid and liquid bolus kinematics in the elderly and compare the findings with those(More)
The aims of this study were to evaluate and quantify the timing of events associated with the oral and pharyngeal phases of liquid swallows. For this purpose, we recorded 0-20 ml barium swallows in three groups of volunteers using videoradiographic, electromyographic, and manometric methods. The study findings indicated that a leading complex of tongue tip(More)