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Comprehensive global climate models are the only tools that account for the complex set of processes which will determine future climate change at both a global and regional level. Planners are typically faced with a wide range of predicted changes from different models of unknown relative quality, owing to large but unquantified uncertainties in the(More)
At its recent meeting (September 2008) involving 20 climate modeling groups from around the world (i.e., most of the major groups performing climate change research today), the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM), with input from IGBP's AIMES, agreed on a new set of coordinated climate model experiments, to be known as phase five of the Coupled(More)
Processes in the climate system that can either amplify or dampen the climate response to an external perturbation are referred to as climate feedbacks. Climate sensitivity estimates depend critically on radia-tive feedbacks associated with water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, snow, and sea ice, and global estimates of these feedbacks differ among general(More)
A methodology is described for probabilistic predictions of future climate. This is based on a set of ensemble simulations of equilibrium and time-dependent changes, carried out by perturbing poorly constrained parameters controlling key physical and biogeochemical processes in the HadCM3 coupled ocean-atmosphere global climate model. These (ongoing)(More)
Vanilloid receptors (VR1) were cloned from human and rat dorsal root ganglion libraries and expressed in Xenopus oocytes or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Both rat and human VR1 formed ligand gated channels that were activated by capsaicin with similar EC(50) values. Capsaicin had a lower potency on both channels, when measured electrophysiologically in(More)
This report describes the characterisation of cloned rat and human bradykinin B1 receptors in African green monkey kidney fibroblast (Cos-7) cells. A ligand binding assay with [3H]des-Arg10-kallidin was used to compare their pharmacology with respect to known bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor ligands. In addition, the pharmacology of T-kinin and its' derivative(More)
The equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) of the two perturbed physics ensembles (PPE) generated using structurally different GCMs, MIROC3.2 and HadSM3, is investigated. We develop a method to quantify the SW cloud feedback by clouds with different cloud top pressure. We find that the difference in the ensemble means of the ECS between the two ensembles is(More)
The performance of several state-of-the-art climate model ensembles, including two multi-model ensembles (MMEs) and four structurally different (perturbed parameter) single model ensembles (SMEs), are investigated for the first time using the rank histogram approach. In this method, the reliability of a model ensemble is evaluated from the point of view of(More)
Cloud feedbacks and rapid adjustments to an abrupt quadrupling of CO 2 are diagnosed in five CMIP5 models using cloud radiative kernels in combination with cloud top pressure-and optical depth-partitioned cloud fractions. Upon CO 2 quadrupling, clouds exhibit a rapid reduction in fractional coverage, cloud top pressure, and optical depth, each contributing(More)