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Understanding how the immune system affects cancer development and progression has been one of the most challenging questions in immunology. Research over the past two decades has helped explain why the answer to this question has evaded us for so long. We now appreciate that the immune system plays a dual role in cancer: It can not only suppress tumor(More)
The immune system can identify and destroy nascent tumor cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, which functions as an important defense against cancer. Recently, data obtained from numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate and adaptive immune cell types,(More)
Triggering of tumour cell apoptosis is the foundation of many cancer therapies. Death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily have been largely characterized, as have the signals that are generated when these receptors are activated. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (TRAILR1 and TRAILR2) are promising targets for(More)
The therapeutic efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies may depend on dendritic cells (DCs), which present antigens from dying cancer cells to prime tumor-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing T lymphocytes. Here we show that dying tumor cells release ATP, which then acts on P2X(7) purinergic receptors from DCs and triggers the NOD-like receptor(More)
During T cell-dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play a role in Tfh(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of B cell proliferation, somatic hypermutation, and selection of variants with improved affinity for antigen. Long-lived memory B cells and plasma cells are also generated in GCs, although how B cell differentiation in GCs is regulated is unclear. IL-21, secreted by T follicular helper cells, is important for adaptive immune(More)
Lineage differentiation and the formation of heterogeneous mature subsets are crucial for immune cells to maintain a breadth of responsiveness to pathogens while controlling reactivity to self. In this study, we report that CD27 is a key marker of the NK cell lineage, dissecting the mature Mac-1high NK cell pool into two functionally distinct subsets. The(More)
The capacity of immunity to control and shape cancer, that is, cancer immunoediting, is the result of three processes that function either independently or in sequence: elimination (cancer immunosurveillance, in which immunity functions as an extrinsic tumour suppressor in naive hosts); equilibrium (expansion of transformed cells is held in check by(More)
Many chemotherapeutic agents induce mitochondrial-membrane disruption to initiate apoptosis. However, the upstream events leading to drug-induced mitochondrial perturbation have remained poorly defined. We have used a variety of physiological and pharmacological inhibitors of distinct apoptotic pathways to analyze the manner by which suberoylanilide(More)