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Trivalent inorganic arsenic (arsenite, arsenic trioxide, As[III]) is currently being used to treat hematologic tumors and is being investigated for treating solid tumors. However, low concentrations of As(III) stimulate vascular cell proliferation in cell culture, although this has not been confirmed in vivo. Therefore, the hypothesis that As(III) enhances(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a common complication of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), occurs in as many as 3.8% of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 16 cases and review 12 previously reported cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with HIV infection. This illness(More)
The authors investigated the spectrum of radiologic findings in a large series (n = 47) of patients seropositive to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and with pathologically proved progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, to determine the characteristic imaging pattern of the disease. Thirty-six computed tomographic (CT) scans and 29 magnetic(More)
SUMMARY While uncommon, CNS-IRIS developing after the initiation of HAART in the setting of HIV-related severe immunosuppression is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction to dead or latent organisms or to self-antigens due to a heightened but dysregulated immune response. While this reaction can range from mild to fulminating, encompassing a very(More)
We review the etiologic agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical manifestations, and imaging features of several unusual intracranial infections that have not been discussed elsewhere in this issue. The central nervous system (CNS) infections discussed are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CrJaD), neurosyphilis, primary amebic meningoencephalitis(More)
Evaluation of intracranial and intraspinal CSF flow was accomplished by the use of cardiac gated gradient echo magnetic resonance (MR) technique. Normal patterns of pulsatile flow within the ventricles, cisterns and cervical subarachnoid space were established by this technique and these observations were compared to prior description of CSF flow. With(More)
Therapeutic angiogenesis using various heparin-binding growth factors is a promising treatment for ischemic heart disease. Single dose intracoronary (IC) or i.v. delivery are most practical for clinical use. This study was designed to investigate the myocardial and tissue deposition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) after IC and i.v. administration(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy in children with longstanding AIDS. BACKGROUND Five cases are described from the authors' experience, and eight additional cases are reviewed from the literature. Details are presented in regard to the clinical picture as well as brain imaging with cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the initial and follow-up imaging findings and survival in patients with PML who were treated with HAART. METHODS The clinical(More)