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(2004). Patterns of low and very low fertility in Europe. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? The pace of fertility transition: national patterns in the second half of the twentieth century. (2004). A global analysis of trends in the quality of HIV sero-surveillance. Sexually Transmitted Infections (London), vol. 80, Supplement(More)
Lymphocyte motility is vital for trafficking within lymphoid organs and for initiating contact with antigen-presenting cells. Visualization of these processes has previously been limited to in vitro systems. We describe the use of two-photon laser microscopy to image the dynamic behavior of individual living lymphocytes deep within intact lymph nodes. In(More)
The adaptive immune response is initiated in secondary lymphoid organs by contact between antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) and antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. However, there is scant information regarding the single cell dynamics of this process in vivo. Using two-photon microscopy, we imaged the real-time behavior of naive CD4+ T cells and in(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) ingest antigens in peripheral tissues and migrate to lymph nodes where they present MHC class II-bound antigen to CD4(+) T cells. We used two-photon microscopy to image the single-cell dynamics of interactions between DCs and T cells within intact lymph nodes in the absence of relevant antigen. DCs were fluorescently labeled in vivo by(More)
The intestinal immune system is exposed to a mixture of foreign antigens from diet, commensal flora and potential pathogens. Understanding how pathogen-specific immunity is elicited while avoiding inappropriate responses to the background of innocuous antigens is essential for understanding and treating intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. The(More)
Two-photon intravital microscopy has substantially broadened our understanding of tissue- and organ-specific differences in the regulation of inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the dynamic regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed heart tissue, largely due to technical difficulties inherent in imaging moving tissue. Here, we(More)
The recirculation of T cells between the blood and secondary lymphoid organs requires that T cells are motile and sensitive to tissue-specific signals. T cell motility has been studied in vitro, but the migratory behavior of individual T cells in vivo has remained enigmatic. Here, using intravital two-photon laser microscopy, we imaged the locomotion and(More)
Interactions between B and T cells are essential for most antibody responses, but the dynamics of these interactions are poorly understood. By two-photon microscopy of intact lymph nodes, we show that upon exposure to antigen, B cells migrate with directional preference toward the B-zone-T-zone boundary in a CCR7-dependent manner, through a region that(More)
The behavior of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes during initial exposure to antigen probably influences their decision to become primed or tolerized, but this has not been examined directly in vivo. We have therefore tracked such cells in real time, in situ during the induction of oral priming versus oral tolerance. There were marked contrasts with(More)
Two-photon microscopy is providing literal insight into the cellular dynamics of lymphoid organs and, guided by analysis of three-dimensional images, into mechanisms that underlie cell migration and antigen recognition in vivo. This review describes lymphocyte motility and antigen recognition in the native tissue environment and compares these results with(More)