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Accelerated gene evolution is a hallmark of pathogen adaptation following a host jump. Here, we describe the biochemical basis of adaptation and specialization of a plant pathogen effector after its colonization of a new host. Orthologous protease inhibitor effectors from the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and its sister species,(More)
Metals are needed by at least one-quarter of all proteins. Although metallochaperones insert the correct metal into some proteins, they have not been found for the vast majority, and the view is that most metalloproteins acquire their metals directly from cellular pools. However, some metals form more stable complexes with proteins than do others. For(More)
Plants have evolved intracellular immune receptors to detect pathogen proteins known as effectors. How these immune receptors detect effectors remains poorly understood. Here we describe the structural basis for direct recognition of AVR-Pik, an effector from the rice blast pathogen, by the rice intracellular NLR immune receptor Pik. AVR-PikD binds a dimer(More)
We present in this paper an overview of current problems with the Internet from the architectural view point, and we identify and forecast trends for future developments. Our study includes perspectives from different stakeholders of the Internet as well as from the technological development point of view. We conclude that current and future requirements(More)
The availability of genome sequences for some of the most devastating eukaryotic plant pathogens has led a revolution in our understanding of how these parasites cause disease, and how their hosts respond to invasion [1–7]. One of the most significant discoveries from the genome sequences of plant pathogenic oomycetes is the plethora of putative(More)
The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli was the first cyclomodulin to be identified that is injected into host cells via the type III secretion machinery. Cif provokes cytopathic effects characterized by G(1) and G(2) cell cycle arrests, accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors(More)
Resilience is arguably the most important property of a net-worked system, one of the three quality of service (QoS) characteristics along with security and performance. Now that computer networks are supporting many of the applications crucial to the success of the emerging Information Society – including business, health care, education, science, and(More)
BACKGROUND The binding of neurotrophin ligands to their respective Trk cellular receptors initiates intracellular signals essential for the growth and survival of neurons. The site of neurotrophin binding has been located to the fifth extracellular domain of the Trk receptor, with this region regulating both the affinity and specificity of Trk(More)
—A flash crowd event can be characterised by a dramatic increase in requests for a service over a relatively short period of time. Often, these events lead to a loss of service because of the saturation of the target server and associated network resources. This paper presents a set of mechanisms that can be used to make Web servers and associated resources(More)