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The Arabidopsis genes FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) encode related proteins with similarity to human Raf kinase inhibitor protein. FT, and likely also TFL1, is recruited to the promoters of floral genes through interaction with FD, a bZIP transcription factor. FT, however, induces flowering, while TFL1 represses flowering. Residues responsible for the(More)
Genes in the TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)/CENTRORADIALIS family are important key regulatory genes involved in the control of flowering time and floral architecture in several different plant species. To understand the functions of TFL1 homologs in pea, we isolated three TFL1 homologs, which we have designated PsTFL1a, PsTFL1b, and PsTFL1c. By genetic mapping(More)
Accelerated gene evolution is a hallmark of pathogen adaptation following a host jump. Here, we describe the biochemical basis of adaptation and specialization of a plant pathogen effector after its colonization of a new host. Orthologous protease inhibitor effectors from the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and its sister species,(More)
PrfA, a transcription factor structurally related to Crp/Fnr, activates Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes during intracellular infection. We report two new PrfA* mutations causing the constitutive overexpression of the PrfA regulon. Leu-140Phe lies in alphaD adjacent to the DNA-binding motif in the C-terminal domain, like a previously characterized(More)
Filamentous pathogens, such as plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, secrete an arsenal of effector molecules that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. It is now well accepted that these effectors are key pathogenicity determinants that enable parasitic infection. In this review, we report on the most interesting features of a(More)
Expression of the plant protein centroradialis (CEN) leads to a morphological switch between shoot growth and the development of flower structures (inflorescence). We have determined the crystal structure of Antirrhinum CEN to 1.9 A resolution. This structure confirms the CEN proteins as a subset of the family of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in the development and maintenance of the nervous system and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target molecule in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. NGF binds with high affinity to the extracellular region of a tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkA, which comprises three(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and(More)
Defensins are a class of small and diverse cysteine-rich proteins found in plants, insects, and vertebrates, which share a common tertiary structure and usually exert broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. We used a bioinformatic approach to scan the Vitis vinifera genome and identified 79 defensin-like sequences (DEFL) corresponding to 46 genes and(More)
HisF (imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase) is an important branch-point enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway of microorganisms. Because of its potential relevance for structure-based drug design, the crystal structure of HisF from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum has been determined. The structure was determined by molecular(More)