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Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) levels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern and microarray hybridizations. MPK4 kinase activity is(More)
We have identified the Arabidopsis ortholog of barley RAR1 as a component of resistance specified by multiple nucleotide binding/Leu-rich repeat resistance (R) genes recognizing different bacterial and oomycete pathogen isolates. Characterization of partially and fully defective rar1 mutations revealed that wild-type RAR1 acts as a rate-limiting regulator(More)
Animal SGT1 is a component of Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases that target regulatory proteins for degradation. Mutations in one (SGT1b) of two highly homologous Arabidopsis SGT1 genes disable early plant defenses conferred by multiple resistance (R) genes. Loss of SGT1b function in resistance is not compensated for by SGT1a. R genes differ(More)
The role of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe and median raphe in the pressor response to electrical stimulation of these areas, and the contribution of these neurons to the pressor response to serotonin (5-HT) in the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area (AH/PO) have been studied by the use of local injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), a(More)
The immunogenicity of clinically administered antibodies has clinical implications for the patients receiving them, ranging from mild consequences, such as increased clearance of the drug from the circulation, to life-threatening effects. The emergence of methods to engineer variable regions resulting in the generation of humanised and fully human(More)
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