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The ATP-bound form of the Escherichia coli DnaA replication initiator protein remodels the chromosomal origin of replication, oriC, to load the replicative helicase. The primary mechanism for regulating the activity of DnaA involves the Hda and β clamp proteins, which act together to dramatically stimulate the intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase activity of DnaA(More)
In an attempt to endow Cyt1Ca with Cyt1Aa-like antibacterial activity, both derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, two amino acids were replaced, E117V and N125A, so as to raise the hydrophobicity of the corresponding region, considered to be the membrane-active motif. The clones obtained included multiple repeats of VIEVLKSLLGIALA,(More)
Compaction of the Escherichia coli nucleoid in the cell's centre was associated with the loss of colony-forming ability; these effects were caused by induction of Cyt1Aa, the cytotoxic 27 kDa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Cyt1Aa-affected compaction of the nucleoids was delayed but eventually more intense than compaction caused by(More)
The larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis against dipteran larvae is determined by four major polypeptides of the parasporal crystalline body produced during sporulation. Cyt1Aa shows the lowest toxicity when used alone but is the most synergistic with any of the other proteins. The sequence of the plasmid pBtoxis, which contains(More)
Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis belong to two unrelated toxin families: receptor-specific Cry toxins against insects and Cyt toxins that lyse a broad range of cells, including bacteria, via direct binding to phospholipids. A new cyt-like open reading frame (cyt1Ca) encoding a 60-kDa protein, has recently been discovered (C. Berry et(More)
Microgene Polymerization Reaction (MPR) is used as an experimental system to artificially simulate evolution of short, non-repetitive homo-duplex DNA into multiply-repetitive products that can code for functional proteins. Blunt-end ligation by DNA polymerase is crucial in expansion of homo-duplexes (HDs) into head-to-tail multiple repeats in MPR. The(More)
The microgene polymerization reaction (MPR) generates head-to-tail tandem repeats from homoduplexes (HDs). In MPR initiation, one HD putatively aligns two others in the proximity required to form a nucleation complex, thus allowing the DNA polymerase to skip the intertemplate gap and generate an initial doublet (ID) prone to repeat propagation. The current(More)
The gene cyt1Aa is one of the genes in the complex determining the mosquito larvicidity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Previous cloning in Escherichia coli resulted in a 48-bp addition upstream, encoding a chimera. Here, cyt1Aa was recloned without the artifact, and its toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae and host E. coli cells was retested.
The Escherichia coli dGTP triphosphohydrolase (dGTPase) encoded by the dgt gene catalyses the hydrolysis of dGTP to deoxyguanosine and triphosphate. The recent discovery of a mutator effect associated with deletion of dgt indicated participation of the triphosphohydrolase in preventing mutagenesis. Here, we have investigated the possible involvement of dgt(More)
Starvation of cells for the DNA building block dTTP is strikingly lethal (thymineless death, TLD), and this effect is observed in all organisms. The phenomenon, discovered some 60 years ago, is widely used to kill cells in anticancer therapies, but many questions regarding the precise underlying mechanisms have remained. Here, we show for the first time(More)