Mark I. Halpern

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The XPOP programming system is a straightforward and practical means of implementing on a computer a great variety of languages---in other words, of writing a variety of compilers. The class of languages it can handle is not easy to characterize by syntactic form, since the system permits syntax specification to be varied freely from statement to statement(More)
Many efforts have been made to develop a better way of implementing a higher level programming language than by the construction of a whole new compiler, but so far none has proved generally satisfactory. In this paper, it is contended that a programming language is best described functionally as a body of macro instructions, and that the macro call(More)
o Economncs A survey is offered of techniques for transferring programs, and especially compilers, from one computer to another. Of the methods examined, the "bootstrap" technique is singled out for detailed discussion, with emphasis on its economics. The considerations that determine the applicability of bootstrap-ping in any specific case are discussed,(More)
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