Mark I Garvey

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OBJECTIVES The use of triclosan within various environments has been linked to the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) through the increased expression of efflux pumps such as AcrAB-TolC. In this work, we investigate the effect of triclosan exposure in order to ascertain the response of two species to the presence of this widely used biocide. (More)
It was hypothesised that extracts from plants that are used as herbal medicinal products contain inhibitors of efflux in Gram-negative bacteria. Extracts from 21 plants were screened by bioassay for synergy with ciprofloxacin against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including mutants in which acrB and tolC had been inactivated. The most active(More)
Two octanordammaranes, mansumbinone (1) and 3,4-seco-mansumbinoic acid (2), and two sesquiterpenes, beta-elemene (3) and T-cadinol (4) have been isolated from the oleo-resin of Commiphora molmol (Engl.). The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by a series of 1D and 2D-NMR analyses. We have also unambiguously assigned all (1)H and(More)
One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were(More)
Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC(More)
OBJECTIVES Does exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of quinolones favour overexpression of efflux pumps or selection of target site mutations? METHODS ATCC 49,619 (fully susceptible) and SP32 (clinical isolate with PmrA-mediated efflux and mutation in ParE) were exposed for 24 h in broth to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin or garenoxacin at(More)
OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that small heterocyclic or nitrogen-containing compounds could act as RND efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). To ascertain possible EPIs, we sought to identify compounds that synergized with substrates of RND efflux pumps for wild-type bacteria and those that overexpress an efflux pump, but had no synergistic activity against strains(More)
BACKGROUND Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium chimaera are found widely in hospital water systems. Invasive M. chimaera infections have recently been attributed to heater-cooler units (HCUs) of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment. AIM To assess the extent of microbiological contamination within the HCUs and to inform decontamination(More)
Over the last decade, carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) have spread worldwide, becoming a major public health concern. This article reports the authors' experience in dealing with a burns patient infected with CPOs, and the decontamination methods employed to render a burns shock room safe for re-use. The shock room was cleaned after being vacated,(More)
OBJECTIVES We aim to further define the impact of the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance and inoculum load on the pharmacodynamic effects of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS The antibacterial effects of and emergence of resistance (EoR) to moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily) or levofloxacin (750 mg once daily or 500 mg(More)