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The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential for neuronal degeneration in multiple contexts but also regulates neuronal homeostasis. It remains unclear how neurons are able to dissociate proapoptotic JNK signaling from physiological JNK activity. In this paper, we show that the mixed lineage kinase dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK)(More)
Passive immunization against β-amyloid (Aβ) has become an increasingly desirable strategy as a therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, traditional passive immunization approaches carry the risk of Fcγ receptor-mediated overactivation of microglial cells, which may contribute to an inappropriate proinflammatory response leading to(More)
We o¤er an explanation for the forward premium puzzle in foreign exchange markets based upon investor overcon…dence. In the model, overcon…dent individuals overreact to their information about future in ‡ation, which causes greater overshooting in the forward rate than in the spot rate. Thus, when agents observe a signal of higher future in ‡ation, the(More)
Research on automatic attitude activation has documented a pervasive tendency to nonconsciously classify most if not all incoming stimuli as either good or bad. Two experiments tested a functional explanation for this effect. The authors hypothesized that automatic evaluation results directly in behavioral predispositions toward the stimulus, such that(More)
This paper studies the " confidential holdings " of institutional investors, especially hedge funds, where the quarter-end equity holdings are disclosed with a delay through amendments to Form 13F and are usually excluded from the standard databases. Funds managing large risky portfolios with nonconventional strategies seek confidentiality more frequently.(More)
Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse(More)
Studies of stochastic biological dynamics typically compare observed fluctuations to theoretically predicted variances, sometimes after separating the intrinsic randomness of the system from the enslaving influence of changing environments. But variances have been shown to discriminate surprisingly poorly between alternative mechanisms, while for other(More)
Aquatic birnavirus induces mitochondria-mediated cell death, but whether connects to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is still unknown. In this present, we characterized that IPNV infection triggers ER stress-mediated cell death via PKR/eIF2α phosphorylation signaling for regulating the Bcl-2 family protein expression in fish cells. The IPNV infection can(More)