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A quantum key distribution scheme based on the use of squeezed states is presented. The states are squeezed in one of two field quadrature components , and the value of the squeezed component is used to encode a character from an alphabet. The uncertainty relation between quadra-ture components prevents an eavesdropper from determining both with enough(More)
Wootters [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998)] has given an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of two qubits in terms of what he calls the concurrence of the joint density operator. Wootters's concurrence is defined with the help of the superoperator that flips the spin of a qubit. We generalize the spin-flip superoperator to a " universal(More)
We present a network consisting of quantum gates that produces two imperfect copies of an arbitrary qubit. The quality of the copies does not depend on the input qubit. We also show that for a restricted class of inputs it is possible to use a very similar network to produce three copies instead of two. For qubits in this class, the copy quality is again(More)
We review our recent work on the universal (i.e. input state independent) optimal quantum copying (cloning) of qubits. We present unitary transformations which describe the optimal cloning of a qubit, and we present the corresponding quantum logic network. We also present a network for an optimal quantum copying " machine " (transformation) which produces N(More)
In quantum state filtering one wants to determine whether an unknown quantum state, which is chosen from a known set of states, [|psi(1)>, em leader,|psi(N)>], is either a specific state, say |psi(1)>, or one of the remaining states, [|psi(2)>, em leader,|psi(N)>]. We present the optimal solution to this problem, in terms of generalized measurements, for(More)
The problem of discriminating among given nonorthogonal quantum states is underlying many of the schemes that have been suggested for quantum communication and quantum computing. However, quantum mechanics puts severe limitations on our ability to determine the state of a quantum system. In particular , nonorthogonal states cannot be discriminated(More)
We present the universal cloning transformation of states in arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert spaces. This unitary transformation attains the optimal fidelity of cloning as specified by Werner [Phys. Rev. A 58, 1827 (1998)]. With this cloning transformation, pure as well as impure states can be optimally copied, and the quality of the copies does not depend on(More)
We study quantum walks on general graphs from the point of view of scattering theory. For a general finite graph we choose two vertices and attach one half line to each, and consider walks that proceed from one half line, through the graph, to the other. The probability of starting on one line and reaching the other after n steps can be expressed in terms(More)