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Since publication of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America position paper on Clostridium difficile infection in 1995, significant changes have occurred in the epidemiology and treatment of this infection. C. difficile remains the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is increasingly important as a community pathogen. A more(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the extent of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe. Our aim was to obtain a more complete overview of C difficile infection in Europe and build capacity for diagnosis and surveillance. METHODS We set up a network of 106 laboratories in 34 European countries. In November, 2008, one to six hospitals per country,(More)
A robust high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Clostridium difficile was developed and validated using a diverse collection of 50 reference isolates representing 45 different PCR ribotypes and 102 isolates from recent clinical samples. A total of 49 PCR ribotypes were represented overall. All isolates were typed by MLST and yielded 40(More)
BACKGROUND Marked increases in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence, driven by epidemic strain spread, is a global phenomenon. METHODS The Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) was established in 2007 as part of enhanced CDI surveillance in England, to facilitate the recognition and control of epidemic strains. We report on changes in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of hospital cleaning agents and germicides on the survival of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains. METHODS We compared the activity of and effects of exposure to 5 cleaning agents and/or germicides (3 containing chlorine, 1 containing only detergent, and 1 containing hydrogen peroxide) on vegetative and spore forms of(More)
OBJECTIVES Therapeutic options in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are limited. We examined linezolid activity in vitro and potential therapeutic efficacy using a gut model of CDI. METHODS MICs were determined by agar incorporation for 118 diverse C. difficile faecal isolates, including epidemic strains and strains with reduced susceptibility to(More)
BACKGROUND Biofilms are characteristic of some chronic or recurrent infections and this mode of growth tends to reduce treatment efficacy. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with a high rate of recurrent symptomatic disease. The presence and behaviour of C. difficile within intestinal biofilms remains largely unexplored, but may factor in(More)
Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the prospects of newly available benchtop sequencers to provide rapid whole-genome data in routine clinical practice. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to resolve uncertainties surrounding the route and timing of person-to-person transmission of healthcare-associated infection, which has been a major impediment to(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is controversial because of many laboratory methods, compounded by two reference methods. Cytotoxigenic culture detects toxigenic C difficile and gives a positive result more frequently (eg, because of colonisation, which means that individuals can have the bacterium but no free toxin) than does the(More)