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Since publication of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America position paper on Clostridium difficile infection in 1995, significant changes have occurred in the epidemiology and treatment of this infection. C. difficile remains the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is increasingly important as a community pathogen. A more(More)
Clostridium difficile is now considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections. C. difficile infections are also emerging in the community and in animals used for food, and are no longer viewed simply as unpleasant complications that follow antibiotic therapy. Since 2001, the prevalence and severity of C. difficile(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the extent of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe. Our aim was to obtain a more complete overview of C difficile infection in Europe and build capacity for diagnosis and surveillance. METHODS We set up a network of 106 laboratories in 34 European countries. In November, 2008, one to six hospitals per country,(More)
The antibiotic pipeline continues to diminish and the majority of the public remains unaware of this critical situation. The cause of the decline of antibiotic development is multifactorial and currently most ICUs are confronted with the challenge of multidrug-resistant organisms. Antimicrobial multidrug resistance is expanding all over the world, with(More)
Clostridium difficile infection remains a major healthcare burden. Until the recent introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatments were limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 and its potential link to decreased antibiotic susceptibility highlight the lack of large-scale antimicrobial(More)
The continuing rise in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection is a cause for concern, with implications for patients and health care systems. Laboratory diagnosis largely relies on rapid toxin detection kits, although assays detecting alternative targets, including glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin genes, are now available. Six hundred(More)
The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed dramatically during this millennium. Infection rates have increased markedly in most countries with detailed surveillance data. There have been clear changes in the clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of CDI. These changes have been driven to a major degree by the(More)
Totals of 102 and 56 Clostridium difficile type 078 strains of human and porcine origins, respectively, from four European countries were investigated by an optimized multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and for tetracycline susceptibility. Eighty-five percent of all isolates were genetically related, irrespective of human or porcine(More)
OBJECTIVES In November 2008, a study was performed with support from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to obtain an overview of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in European hospitals. A collection of 398 C. difficile isolates obtained from this hospital-based survey was utilized to identify antimicrobial susceptibility(More)
BACKGROUND Variations in testing for Clostridium difficile infection can hinder patients' care, increase the risk of transmission, and skew epidemiological data. We aimed to measure the underdiagnosis of C difficile infection across Europe. METHODS We did a questionnaire-based study at 482 participating hospitals across 20 European countries. Hospitals(More)