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Although serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuromodulator in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), there is some disagreement concerning its influences upon the membrane properties of neurons within this region. We performed whole cell recordings of mEC Layer II projection neurons in rat brain slices in order to characterize the(More)
In entorhinal cortex layer II neurons, muscarinic receptor activation promotes depolarization via activation of a nonspecific cation current (I(NCM)). Under muscarinic influence, these neurons also develop changes in excitability that result in activity-dependent induction of delayed firing and bursting activity. To identify the membrane processes(More)
The present study addresses the relationship between blood flow and glucose consumption in rat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in vivo. We examined bilateral neuronal and hemodynamic changes and 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake, as measured by autoradiography, in response to unilateral forepaw stimulation. In contrast to the contralateral forepaw area, where(More)
The effects of muscarinic stimulation on the membrane potential and current of in situ rat entorhinal-cortex layer-II principal neurons were analyzed using the whole cell, patch-clamp technique. In current-clamp experiments, application of carbachol (CCh) induced a slowly developing, prolonged depolarization initially accompanied by a slight decrease or no(More)
An explosion of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies investigating cortical activation in relation to higher cognitive processes, such as language, memory, and attention is underway worldwide involving adults, children and infants with typical and atypical cognition. The contemporary challenge of using fNIRS for cognitive neuroscience is to(More)
Decades of research have shown that, from an early age, proficient bilinguals can speak each of their two languages separately (similar to monolinguals) or rapidly switch between them (dissimilar to monolinguals). Thus we ask, do monolingual and bilingual brains process language similarly or dissimilarly, and is this affected by the language context? Using(More)
UNLABELLED The brain basis of bilinguals' ability to use two languages at the same time has been a hotly debated topic. On the one hand, behavioral research has suggested that bilingual dual language use involves complex and highly principled linguistic processes. On the other hand, brain-imaging research has revealed that bilingual language switching(More)
OBJECT The mechanism of action whereby high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the thalamus ameliorates tremor and epilepsy is unknown. The authors studied the effects of HFS on thalamocortical relay neurons in a ferret in vitro slice preparation to test the hypothesis that HFS abolishes synchronized oscillations by neurotransmitter release. METHODS(More)
Early bilingual exposure, especially exposure to two languages in different modalities such as speech and sign, can profoundly affect an individual's language, culture, and cognition. Here we explore the hypothesis that bimodal dual language exposure can also affect the brain's organization for language. These changes occur across brain regions universally(More)
What neural mechanisms underlie language and reading acquisition? Slow rhythmic modulations in the linguistic stream (below 8 Hz) mark syllable and word boundaries in the continuous linguistic stream, potentially helping children master the words and structures of their language. Converging evidence across language and reading research suggests that(More)
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