Mark H. Reacher

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BACKGROUND Highly publicised outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis in hospitals in the UK and Ireland and cruise ships in the USA sparked speculation about whether this reported activity was unusual. METHODS We analysed data collected through a collaborative research and surveillance network of viral gastroenteritis in ten European countries (England and(More)
To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N =3,714) of all nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000.(More)
In the period 1992-2000, the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre collected standardized epidemiologic data on 1,877 general outbreaks of Norovirus (formerly "Norwalk-like virus") infection in England and Wales. Seventy-nine percent of general outbreaks occurred in health-care institutions, i.e., hospitals (40%) and(More)
We reviewed the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of 89 reported outbreaks of waterborne infectious intestinal disease affecting 4321 people in England and Wales over the period 1992-2003. Public water supplies were implicated in 24 outbreaks (27%), private water supplies in 25 (28%), swimming pools in 35 (39%) and other sources in five(More)
The effectiveness of commonly used procedures to correct trachomatous trichiasis of the upper lid was examined in a clinical trial in Oman. Lids were graded as having minor trichiasis (five or fewer lashes), major trichiasis (more than five lashes), and defective lid closure. Randomly allocated surgery specific for lid grade was completed in 384 lids, of(More)
Severe flooding may become more frequent due to global warming. A historical cohort study was conducted by telephone interview for new episodes of illness in all age groups, and for psychological distress in adults, following severe river flooding on 12 October 2000 in the town of Lewes in Southern England. Two hundred and twenty-seven residents of 103(More)
Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the fact that visual function has an important role in the quality of life in later years, very few studies have measured visual acuity in population based nationwide samples of British elderly people. Such measurements were carried out in the context of the national diet and nutrition survey of people aged 65 years or over (NDNS). (More)
BACKGROUND Increasing numbers of individuals with cystic fibrosis are becoming infected with the multidrug-resistant non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) Mycobacterium abscessus, which causes progressive lung damage and is extremely challenging to treat. How this organism is acquired is not currently known, but there is growing concern that person-to-person(More)
Nosocomial outbreaks of gastroenteritis are a major burden on hospital inpatient services, costing an estimated pound115 million annually to the English National Health Service. We actively followed-up 171 inpatient units from four major acute hospitals and 11 community hospitals in South-west England for one year. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis were(More)