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Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, similar to mammalian Myc transcription factors, regulate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in both monocots and dicots. Two Arabidopsis bHLH genes, GLABRA3 (GL3) and MYC-146, encode proteins that are similar throughout the predicted amino acid sequence to R and DELILA, which regulate anthocyanin production in maize(More)
The presence and biological significance of circulating glycated insulin has been evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), radioimmunoassay (RIA), receptor binding, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques. ESI-MS analysis of an HPLC-purified plasma pool from four male type 2(More)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an important insulin-releasing hormone of the enteroinsular axis which is rapidly inactivated by the exopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV. The present study has examined the ability of Tyr(1)-glucitol GIP to be protected from plasma degradation and to enhance insulin-releasing and antihyperglycaemic activity in(More)
The effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on glucose homeostasis and insulin glycation were examined in adult lean and obese hyperglycemic (ob/ob) mice. In lean mice, supplementation of the drinking water with vitamin C (25 g/L) for 14 days did not affect food intake, fluid intake, glycated hemoglobin, plasma glucose, or plasma insulin(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor that binds to diverse ligands and initiates a downstream proinflammatory signaling cascade. RAGE activation has been linked to diabetic complications, Alzheimer disease, infections, and cancers. RAGE is known to mediate cell signaling and downstream proinflammatory(More)
Previous studies have shown that glycation of insulin occurs in pancreatic beta-cells under conditions of hyperglycaemia and that the site of glycation is the N-terminal Phe(1) of the insulin B-chain. To enable evaluation of glycated insulin in diabetes, specific antibodies were raised in rabbits and guinea-pigs by using two synthetic peptides (A:(More)
The use of screening methods based on the detection of biological effects of growth promoters is a promising approach to assist residue monitoring. To reveal useful effects on protein metabolism, male and female veal calves at 10 weeks of age were treated thrice with a combination of 25mg 17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 150 mg 19-nortestosterone decanoate(More)
Aims/hypothesis. This study examined the plasma stability, biological activity and antidiabetic potential of two novel N-terminally modified analogues of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Methods. Degradation studies were carried out on GIP, N-acetyl-GIP (Ac-GIP) and N-pyroglutamyl-GIP (pGlu-GIP) in vitro following incubation with either(More)
Aims/hypothesis. This study examined the biological effects of the GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro3)GIP and the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin(9–39)amide. Methods. Cyclic AMP production was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts transfected with human GIP or GLP-1 receptors, respectively. In vitro insulin release studies were assessed in BRIN-BD11(More)
Glycated insulin was evaluated in plasma and biological tissues of diabetic animal models by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and a novel radioimmunoassay. Glycated insulin circulated at 0.10 +/- 0.04 ng/ml and 2.20 +/- 0.14 ng/ml in lean and diabetic obese (ob/ob) mice, corresponding to 12.5 and 9.8% total plasma insulin, respectively. The concentration of(More)