Mark H. Lewis

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Systematic study of abnormal repetitive behaviors in autism has been lacking despite the diagnostic significance of such behavior. The occurrence of specific topographies of repetitive behaviors as well as their severity was assessed in individuals with mental retardation with and without autism. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias,(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common, chronic, and oftentimes disabling disorder. The only established first-line treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder are exposure and response prevention therapy and the serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Many patients do not experience complete symptom resolution with either modality and require augmentation(More)
Abnormal repetitive behaviors such as stereotypies are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and are often observed under conditions of environmental restriction, particularly early in development. Few studies, however, have systematically assessed the effects of environmental enrichment and almost no information is available as to whether a(More)
Here the authors discuss evidence in human and animal models supporting two opposing views regarding the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS): (1) HIV infection in the CNS is a compartmentalized infection, with the virus-infected macrophages entering the CNS early, infecting resident microglia and(More)
A variety of conceptual similarities between compulsions seen in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and stereotypy and self-injury seen in individuals with mental retardation led us to investigate the prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity of compulsions in adults with severe or profound mental retardation. We developed simple assessment(More)
Restricted, repetitive behaviours (e.g., stereotypies, compulsions, rituals) in neurodevelopmental disorders have been linked to alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuitry. Cognitive processes mediated by this circuitry (e.g., procedural learning, executive function) are likely to be impaired in individuals exhibiting high rates of repetitive behaviour.(More)
Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with(More)
Stereotypies are patterns of motor behavior that are repetitive, excessive, topographically invariant, and that lack any obvious function or purpose. In humans, stereotyped behaviors are associated with psychiatric, neurological, and developmental disorders. In animals, stereotypy has been frequently associated with adverse environmental circumstances and(More)
The hypothesis that early social isolation results in long-term alterations in dopamine receptor sensitivity was tested using older adult rhesus monkeys. Isolated and control monkeys were challenged with apomorphine (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg), and the drug effects on spontaneous blink rate, stereotyped behavior, and self-injurious behavior were quantified using(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate postural control in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) during static and dynamic postural challenges. We evaluated postural sway during quiet stance and the center of pressure (COP) shift mechanism during gait initiation for 13 children with ASD and 12 age-matched typically developing (TD) children.(More)