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Research in the areas of organizational climate and work performance was used to develop a framework for measuring perceptions of safety at work. The framework distinguished perceptions of the work environment from perceptions of performance related to safety. Two studies supported application of the framework to employee perceptions of safety in the(More)
The authors measured perceptions of safety climate, motivation, and behavior at 2 time points and linked them to prior and subsequent levels of accidents over a 5-year period. A series of analyses examined the effects of top-down and bottom-up processes operating simultaneously over time. In terms of top-down effects, average levels of safety climate within(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of data describing how general practitioners (GPs) label or record depression. AIMS To determine incidence and sociodemographic variation in GP-recorded depression diagnoses and depressive symptoms. METHOD Annual incidence rates calculated using data from 298 UK general practices between 1996 and 2006, adjusted for year of(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety is common, with significant morbidity, but little is known about presentations and recording of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in primary care. This study aimed to determine trends in incidence and socio-demographic variation in General Practitioner (GP) recorded diagnoses of anxiety, mixed anxiety/depression, panic and anxiety symptoms.(More)
Few organizational change studies identify the aspects of change that are salient to individuals and that influence well-being. The authors identified three distinct change characteristics: the frequency, impact and planning of change. R. S. Lazarus and S. Folkman's (1984) cognitive phenomenological model of stress and coping was used to propose ways that(More)
BACKGROUND The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of telling patients their estimated spirometric lung age as an incentive to quit smoking. DESIGN Randomised controlled trial. SETTING Five general practices in Hertfordshire, England. PARTICIPANTS 561 current smokers aged over 35. INTERVENTION All participants were offered spirometric assessment of lung function.(More)
In this study, the authors investigated how leader vision influences the change-oriented behaviors of adaptivity and proactivity in the workplace. The authors proposed that leader vision would lead to an increase in adaptivity for employees who were high in openness to work role change. In contrast, they proposed leader vision would be associated with an(More)
BACKGROUND Medication-related admissions are an important cause of hospital admissions in older people. The scope for prevention is less clear. OBJECTIVES To characterize medication-related hospital admissions in older people and assess their preventability. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted over 3 months. A pharmacist(More)
Few studies have investigated why harassment has negative effects on women's well-being. The authors proposed that, for women working in traditionally male occupations, gender harassment (GH) causes overperformance demands (OPD), which lead to psychological distress. This mediated model was strongly supported for 262 female police officers but, as proposed,(More)