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The asymmetric decarboxylation of prochiral a-disubstituted malonic acids is an attractive route to produce homochiral asubstituted carboxylic acids. Various metal-catalysed and organocatalytic methods have been explored for related enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) reactions. However, the synthetic EDPmethods can only deliver chiral(More)
The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher(More)
BACKGROUND Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20%) in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high(More)
BACKGROUND The NICE guideline for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) emphasises the need for an early diagnosis in primary care with management tailored to patient needs. However, GPs can be reluctant to make a diagnosis and are unsure how to manage people with the condition. METHODS A meta synthesis of published qualitative(More)
Many viruses target the polarized epithelial apex during host invasion. In contrast, hepatitis C virus (HCV) engages receptors at the basal surface of hepatocytes in the polarized liver parenchyma. Hepatocyte polarization limits HCV entry by undefined mechanism(s). Given the recent reports highlighting a role for receptor mobility in pathogen entry, we(More)
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular disease (CVD) often arises from modifiable lifestyle factors. Health care professionals may lack the skills and resources to sustain behaviour change, lay 'health trainers' (LHT) offer a potential alternative. We sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of using a LHT to improve heart-health lifestyles in(More)
Phenylalanine aminomutases (PAMs) are 4-methylideneimidazol-5-one (MIO)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the isomerization of (S)-a-phenylalanine to give (S)or (R)-bphenylalanine, which are precursors in the biosynthesis of various natural products. Several related tyrosine aminomutases (TAMs) have also been characterized. Furthermore, the mechanistically(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 30% of UK deaths. It is associated with modifiable lifestyle factors, including insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Lay health trainers (LHTs) offer practical support to help people develop healthier behaviour and lifestyles. Our two-group pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT)(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which national and local UK guidelines for the early years sector address key recommendations for encouraging healthy eating based on best available evidence. DESIGN Phase 1 comprised a literature review to identify new evidence to assess current relevance of the Caroline Walker Trust (CWT) 'Eating well for under-5 s(More)