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Human infection by Marburg (MBG) or Ebola (EBO) virus is associated with fatal haemorrhagic fevers. While these filoviruses may both incite disease as a result of explosive virus replication, we hypothesized that expression of individual viral gene products, such as the envelope glycoprotein (GP), may directly alter target cells and contribute to(More)
Chemokine receptors, particularly CCR5 and CXCR4, act as essential coreceptors in concert with CD4 for cellular entry by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1; reviewed in [1]). But infection of CD4(-) cells has also been encountered in various tissues in vivo, including astrocytes, neurons and microvascular endothelial cells of the brain [2] [3] [4](More)
Human infections by Marburg (MBG) and Ebola (EBO) viruses result in lethal hemorrhagic fever. To identify cellular entry factors employed by MBG virus, noninfectible cells transduced with an expression library were challenged with a selectable pseudotype virus packaged by MBG glycoproteins (GP). A cDNA encoding the folate receptor-alpha (FR-alpha) was(More)
Since the Marburg (MBG) and Ebola (EBO) viruses have sequence homology and cause similar diseases, we hypothesized that they associate with target cells by similar mechanisms. Pseudotype viruses prepared with a luciferase-containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 backbone and packaged by the MBG virus or the Zaire subtype EBO virus glycoproteins (GP)(More)
STAT5 has previously been reported to be dispensable for the maintenance of tolerance in vivo. However, in examining hemopoiesis in mice lacking both isoforms of STAT5, STAT5A, and STAT5B, we noted that a subset of these mice demonstrated dramatic alterations in several bone marrow progenitor populations concomitant with lymphocytic infiltration of the bone(More)
The mouse, dog, and monkey toxicity data on 30 drugs was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with the actual clinical dose schedules used in man. Animal dose schedules were converted to the human schedule and comparisons were made of the human dose versus the large animal toxic dose low, toxic dose high, and lethal dose, the lethal doses for 10% and 90%(More)
The human beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 is an important cofactor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The murine form of CCR5, despite its 82 percent identity to the human form, was not functional as an HIV-1 coreceptor. HIV-1 entry function could be reconstituted by fusion of various individual elements derived from the extracellular(More)
Prior experiments in explants of human lymphoid tissue have demonstrated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects diverse cellular targets including T cells and tissue macrophages. We sought to determine the specific contribution of macrophages and T cells to the overall viral burden within lymphoid tissue. To block infection of(More)
The T lymphocyte antigen-receptor complex mediates antigen-specific cell activation, at least in part, through the production of inositolphospholipid-derived second messengers. Little is known about how second messenger events, typically measured within minutes of ligand binding, eventually lead to distal biologic responses such as expression of lymphokine(More)
The development of a permissive small animal model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV)-1 pathogenesis and the testing of antiviral strategies has been hampered by the inability of HIV-1 to infect primary rodent cells productively. In this study, we explored transgenic rats expressing the HIV-1 receptor complex as a susceptible host.(More)