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BACKGROUND Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) are central enzymes involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. During this process, ubiquitin (Ub) and the E2 protein form an unstable E2-Ub thiolester intermediate prior to the transfer of ubiquitin to an E3-ligase protein and the labeling of a substrate for degradation. A series of complex(More)
The targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases is fundamental to their roles as cellular regulators. The type one serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1) is enriched in the nucleus, yet few nuclear PP1 targeting subunits have been described and characterized. Here we show that the human protein, ZAP3 (also known as ZAP), is localized to the nucleus,(More)
A highly conserved DNA uptake system allows many bacteria to actively import and integrate exogenous DNA. This process, called natural transformation, represents a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involved in the acquisition of virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants. Despite evidence of HGT and the high level of conservation of(More)
Cholesterol sulfate inhibits (K1/2, 6 microM) the side chain cleavage of exogenous cholesterol in intact rat adrenal mitochondria. Inhibition is at a site other than cytochrome P-450scc: the spin state of the hemoprotein is not perturbed, and its activity is unaffected as judged by the failure to inhibit the metabolism both of 25-hydroxycholesterol and of(More)
The human T cell lymphotropic retrovirus type I (HTLV-I) trans-activator, Tax, interacts specifically with the basic-domain/leucine-zipper (bZip) protein, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), bound to the viral Tax-responsive element consisting of three imperfect 21-base pair repeats, each with a cAMP response element core flanked by G/C-rich(More)
Polydeoxyribonucleotide kinase (PNK) is a mammalian DNA repair enzyme that has the capacity to phosphorylate 5' DNA termini and dephosphorylate 3' DNA termini. A series of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was raised against the full-length recombinant human PNK. Seven of these antibodies were selected and characterized by enzyme immunoassay, Western blot(More)
The three dimers 3, 4, and 5 of mitomycin C (MC), a natural antibiotic and cancer chemotherapeutic agent, were synthesized in which two MC molecules were linked with -(CH(2))(4)-, -(CH(2))(12)-, and -(CH(2))(3)N(CH(3))(CH(2))(3)- tethers, respectively. The dimeric mitomycins were designed to react as polyfunctional DNA alkylators, generating novel types of(More)
Lankacidin group antibiotics show strong antimicrobial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, they were shown to have considerable antitumor activity against certain cell line models. For decades, the antitumor activity of lankacidin was associated with the mechanism of its antimicrobial action, which is interference with peptide bond(More)
We have proposed that c e l l u l a r senescence is cont ro l led by normal genes that are act ivated or whose funct ions become manifest at the end of the l i f e span of a ce l l . Defects in these genes al low ce l l s to escape senescence and become immortal. Senescence genes have been mapped to spec i f ic human chromosomes ( I , 4 and X) using somatic(More)