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RATIONALE The efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation is limited. One reason for this limited efficacy may be that typical serum nicotine concentrations provided by NRT do not match the peak arterial nicotine concentrations achieved from smoking. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to determine whether continuous(More)
RATIONALE The hypocretin (hcrt) system has been implicated in addiction-relevant effects of several drugs, but its role in nicotine dependence has been little studied. OBJECTIVES These experiments examined the role of the hcrt system in nicotine reinforcement. METHODS Rats were trained for nicotine self-administration (NSA) on fixed-ratio schedules. The(More)
BACKGROUND The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures(More)
A major obstacle to the development of medications for nicotine dependence is the lack of animal and human laboratory models with sufficient predictive clinical validity to support the translation of knowledge from laboratory studies to clinical research. This Review describes the animal and human laboratory paradigms commonly used to investigate the(More)
The dopamine D3 receptor is primarily localized within the mesocorticolimbic system, and may therefore have potential as a pharmacotherapeutic target for the treatment of drug dependence. Studies have shown that the selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces a variety of dependence-related behavioral effects of cocaine, alcohol and heroin.(More)
Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009, giving the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Both regulatory(More)
Although numerous studies have examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) threshold assays, relatively few have employed other methods for assessing motivation that use naturally reinforcing stimuli (e.g., food). The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of nicotine withdrawal on(More)
Maternal tobacco use is associated with adverse developmental outcomes in offspring, including hyperactivity. Animal studies attempting to model this phenomenon have primarily used continuous s.c. nicotine infusion as the method of nicotine administration, which does not model the intermittent bolus delivery of nicotine associated with smoking in humans.(More)
Vaccination against nicotine is being studied as a potential treatment for nicotine dependence. Some of the limitations of vaccination, such as variability in antibody titer and affinity, might be overcome by instead using passive immunization with nicotine-specific monoclonal antibodies. The effects of antibodies on nicotine distribution to brain were(More)
Vaccination against nicotine is under investigation as a treatment for tobacco dependence. Passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies represents a complementary strategy to vaccination. A potential adverse effect of passive immunization in nicotine-dependent individuals is that it may lead to a rapid reduction in brain nicotine levels and(More)