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RATIONALE The efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation is limited. One reason for this limited efficacy may be that typical serum nicotine concentrations provided by NRT do not match the peak arterial nicotine concentrations achieved from smoking. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to determine whether continuous(More)
RATIONALE The hypocretin (hcrt) system has been implicated in addiction-relevant effects of several drugs, but its role in nicotine dependence has been little studied. OBJECTIVES These experiments examined the role of the hcrt system in nicotine reinforcement. METHODS Rats were trained for nicotine self-administration (NSA) on fixed-ratio schedules. The(More)
Although numerous studies have examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) threshold assays, relatively few have employed other methods for assessing motivation that use naturally reinforcing stimuli (e.g., food). The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of nicotine withdrawal on(More)
Maternal tobacco use is associated with adverse developmental outcomes in offspring, including hyperactivity. Animal studies attempting to model this phenomenon have primarily used continuous s.c. nicotine infusion as the method of nicotine administration, which does not model the intermittent bolus delivery of nicotine associated with smoking in humans.(More)
The dopamine D3 receptor is primarily localized within the mesocorticolimbic system, and may therefore have potential as a pharmacotherapeutic target for the treatment of drug dependence. Studies have shown that the selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces a variety of dependence-related behavioral effects of cocaine, alcohol and heroin.(More)
Vaccination against nicotine is under investigation as a treatment for tobacco dependence. Passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies represents a complementary strategy to vaccination. A potential adverse effect of passive immunization in nicotine-dependent individuals is that it may lead to a rapid reduction in brain nicotine levels and(More)
Animal models of tobacco dependence typically rely on parenteral administration of pure nicotine. Models using cigarette smoke inhalation might more accurately simulate nicotine exposure in smokers. The primary goal of this study was to validate methods for administering cigarette smoke to rats using exposure conditions that were clinically relevant and(More)
Drugs, like other reinforcers, can vary in their relative abilities to support operant responding. Considerable research has been designed to obtain useful measures of a given drug's or dose's "reinforcing efficacy" and to identify the ways in which a variety of behavioral and pharmacological variables impact these measures. Progressive-ratio schedules of(More)
The objective of the present study was to determine the relative efficacy of nicotine priming and nicotine-paired stimuli in reinstating extinguished NSA in rats. The relative efficacy of different stimulus conditions in reinstating NSA was also determined. Rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/inf) under an FR 5 schedule. Onset of a(More)
The nicotinic partial agonist varenicline (VCL) is a recently approved medication for the treatment of tobacco dependence, yet very little preclinical research on this drug has been published. The present experiment examined the nicotinic partial agonist properties of VCL and its parent compound, cytisine (CYT), in a nicotine discrimination assay. Rats were(More)