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To assess the risk of all nanomaterials (NMs) on a case-by-case basis is challenging in terms of financial, ethical and time resources. Instead a more intelligent approach to knowledge gain and risk assessment is required. A framework of future research priorities was developed from the accorded opinion of experts covering all major stake holder groups(More)
Surface sediment from three polluted sites within Cork Harbour, Ireland, and from a relatively clean reference site were collected and analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), organotins (OTs), and heavy metals. PAHs were determined to be the(More)
In the present study, we assess the potential of fish cell lines (CHSE, EPC and RTG-2) to be used as screening tools for the ecotoxicological assessment of estuarine sediments. The processing of sediment to a form suitable for in vitro exposure is an inherent problem when using cell cultures. The approach employed in this study was to prepare aqueous(More)
Sediments frequently cause damage to biota due to the accumulation of toxic compounds and the bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants. Damage can be assessed using biomarkers, such as the degree of genotoxic impact following in vivo exposure to pollutants. Genotoxic damage, expressed as single-strand DNA breaks, was measured in cells isolated from(More)
The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay was employed to test the potential of surficial sediment collected from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to induce DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in a laboratory exposure experiment. Turbot were exposed for 21 days to field-collected sediment from Cork Harbor and from a relatively clean(More)
Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is a mechanism analogous to the mammalian multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, whereby, simultaneous resistance is conferred against the intracellular accumulation of structurally and functionally diverse, natural, endogenous and environmental toxicants. Expression of P-glycoproteins (P-gp), ATP-dependent transporters(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall sensitivity and applicability of a number of bioassays representing multiple trophic levels, for the preliminary ecotoxicological screening (Tier I) of estuarine sediments. Chemical analyses were conducted on sediments from all sampling sites to assist in interpreting results. As sediment is an(More)
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and heat shock proteins (hsps) 40, 60, 70 and 90 were determined by immunoblotting using actin as an internal control in Mytilus edulis from one station outside (site1) and three stations within (sites 2-4) Cork Harbour, Ireland. Comparisons were made between gill and digestive gland and between sites. Gill shows generally(More)
Hatchery-reared turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were exposed for 3 weeks, under laboratory conditions, to sediment collected from polluted sites in Cork Harbour and a reference site at Ballymacoda, Co. Cork, Ireland. The potential of surficial sediment for inducing hepatic biomarkers was assessed at two levels of biological organisation: expression of(More)
We explore the use of the clam Tapes semidecussatus Reeves 1864 as an indicator for the presence of potentially genotoxic substances in estuarine sediments. The limitations associated with the interpretation of Comet assay data (expressed as % DNA in tail) in terms of clam reproductive state, size (age) and thermal exposure history following laboratory(More)