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Clinicians caring for patients with brachial plexus and other nerve injuries must possess a clear understanding of the peripheral nervous system's response to trauma. In this article, the authors briefly review peripheral nerve injury (PNI) types, discuss the common injury classification schemes, and describe the dynamic processes of degeneration and(More)
We evaluated the gait pattern of a deafferented subject who suffered a permanent loss of large sensory myelinated fibers below the neck following an acute episode of purely sensory neuropathy 21 years ago. The subject has developed several strategies to achieve a secure gait, namely: (1) a reduction of the degrees of freedom by freezing the knee(More)
We combine diffuse optical and correlation spectroscopies to simultaneously measure the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration and blood flow in an adult human brain during sensorimotor stimulation. The observations permit calculation of the relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the human brain, for the first time to our knowledge, by use(More)
Laser-speckle flowmetry was used to characterize activation flow coupling after electrical somatosensory stimulation of forepaw and hindpaw in the rat. Quantification of functional activation was made with high transverse spatial (microm) and temporal (msec) resolution. Different activation levels and duration of stimulation were quantitatively(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the most efficient perioperative prophylactic strategy for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in craniotomy patients by use of a decision analysis model. METHODS We conducted a structured review of the relevant literature and compiled the reported incidences of DVT, pulmonary embolism, and postoperative intracranial hemorrhage(More)
OBJECT The average 65-year-old patient with moderate dementia can look forward to only 1.4 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), that is, longevity times quality of life. Some of these patients suffer from normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and respond dramatically to shunt insertion. Currently, however, NPH cannot be diagnosed with certainty. The authors(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional stimulation is accompanied by increases in regional cerebral blood flow which exceed metabolic demands under normal circumstances, but it is unknown whether functional stimulation is beneficial or detrimental in the setting of acute ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of forepaw stimulation during(More)
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) remains a source of significant morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo craniotomy procedures. Despite several studies in which the safety and efficacy of various prophylactic strategies were examined, there is still no consensus among clinicians. In this paper the authors review the literature with regard to(More)
Differentiating treatment-induced necrosis from tumor recurrence is a central challenge in neuro-oncology. These 2 very different outcomes after brain tumor treatment often appear similarly on routine follow-up imaging studies. They may even manifest with similar clinical symptoms, further confounding an already difficult process for physicians attempting(More)
Most functional neuroimaging techniques rely on activation-flow coupling (AFC) to detect changes in regional brain function, but AFC responses may also be altered during pathophysiological conditions such as ischemia. To define the relationship between progressive ischemia and the AFC response, graded levels of cerebral blood flow reduction were produced(More)