Mark G. Baxter

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29, 31, and 45; right 17, 35, and 37). 17. Although the improvement in WM performance with cholinergic enhancement was a nonsignificant trend in the current study (P 5 0.07), in a previous study (9) with a larger sample (n 5 13) the effect was highly significant (P , 0.001). In the current study, we analyzed RT data for six of our seven subjects because the(More)
Separate studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) or amygdala-related regions in processing aversive stimuli, but their relationships to each other and to appetitive motivational systems are poorly understood. We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project(More)
Goal-directed actions are guided by expected outcomes of those actions. Humans with bilateral damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex, or the amygdala, are deficient in their ability to use information about positive and negative outcomes to guide their choice behavior. Similarly, rats and monkeys with orbital prefrontal or amygdala damage have been found(More)
The amygdala — an almond-shaped group of nuclei at the heart of the telencephalon — has been associated with a range of cognitive functions, including emotion, learning, memory, attention and perception. Most current views of amygdala function emphasize its role in negative emotions, such as fear, and in linking negative emotions with other aspects of(More)
Despite the prominence of parietal activity in human neuroimaging investigations of sensorimotor and cognitive processes, there remains uncertainty about basic aspects of parietal cortical anatomical organization. Descriptions of human parietal cortex draw heavily on anatomical schemes developed in other primate species, but the validity of such comparisons(More)
Persistent suppression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function produces enduring structural changes in neocortical and limbic regions in a pattern similar to changes reported in schizophrenia. This similarity suggests that chronic NMDA receptor antagonism in animals may represent a useful model of neurobiological and related cognitive deficits in(More)
Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in(More)
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is believed to be involved in the representation of spatial information, including spatial attentional processing. Because the PPC is extensively interconnected with frontal cortical regions involved in attention and executive function, we sought to determine whether PPC was involved in nonspatial attentional processes(More)
Aged rats have spatial memory deficits relative to young rats. The extent of these deficits in intermediate-aged rats is not well established. The present study examined the pattern of age-related changes in spatial reference and working memory in four ages of Fischer-344 rats. Place discrimination (PD) in the Morris water maze measured spatial reference(More)
Normal ageing is associated with impairments in cognitive function, including memory. These impairments are linked, not to a loss of neurons in the forebrain, but to specific and relatively subtle synaptic alterations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here, we review studies that have shed light on the cellular and synaptic changes observed in these(More)