Mark G. Allen

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The photochemistry of simple molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms in the atmosphere of Titan has been investigated using updated chemical schemes and our own estimates of a number of key rate coefficients. Proper exospheric boundary conditions, vertical transport, and condensation processes at the tropopause have been(More)
The factors governing the amounts of CO, O2, and O3 in the martian atmosphere are investigated using a minimally constrained, one-dimensional photochemical model. We find that the incorporation of temperature-dependent CO2 absorption cross sections leads to an enhancement in the water photolysis rate, increasing the abundance of OH radicals to the point(More)
Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 microm. When(More)
As a hybrid between a hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, we have used microfabrication technology to make arrays of micron-scale needles that transport drugs and other compounds across the skin without causing pain. However, not all microneedle geometries are able to insert into skin at reasonable forces and without breaking. In this study, we(More)
As an alternative to hypodermic injection or implantation of controlled-release systems, this study designed and evaluated biodegradable polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug for controlled release in skin and are suitable for self-administration by patients. Arrays of microneedles were fabricated out of poly-lactide-co-glycolide using a mold-based(More)
The goal of this study was to design, fabricate, and test arrays of hollow microneedles for minimally invasive and continuous delivery of insulin in vivo. As a simple, robust fabrication method suitable for inexpensive mass production, we developed a modified-LIGA process to micromachine molds out of polyethylene terephthalate using an ultraviolet laser,(More)
The physical and chemical processes that lead to the preferential escape of hydrogen over deuterium in the Martian atmosphere are studied in detail using a one-dimensional photochemical model. Comparison of our theory with recent observations of HDO suggests that, averaged over the planet, Mars contains 0.2 m of crustal water that is exchangeable with the(More)
Passive resonant sensors have been studied by many groups as an approach to sensing of physical properties in inaccessible locations without the need for incorporating any on-board power sources. In this work, we report two types of wireless flexible micromachined passive pressure sensors. Since the devices are flexible, they can be rolled or folded into(More)
This paper describes three micromachined planar inductors (a spiral type, a solenoid type, and a toroidal meander type) with electroplated nickel–iron permalloy cores which have been realized on a silicon wafer using micromachining techniques. The electrical properties among the fabricated inductors are compared and the related fabrication issues are(More)