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Components of the Stroop task were examined to investigate the role that inhibitory processes play in cognitive changes in healthy older adults and in individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Inhibitory breakdowns should result in an increase in Stroop interference. The results indicate that older adults show a disproportionate increase in(More)
Research on group differences in response latency often has as its goal the detection of Group x Treatment interactions. However, accumulating evidence suggests that response latencies for different groups are often linearly related, leading to an increased likelihood of finding spurious overadditive interactions in which the slower group produces a larger(More)
We investigated whether the cognitive mechanism of suppression underlies differences in adult comprehension skill. Less skilled comprehenders reject less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meaning of spade), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience), the highly typical but(More)
For adults, skill at comprehending written language correlates highly with skill at comprehending spoken language. Does this general comprehension skill extend beyond language-based modalities? And if it does, what cognitive processes and mechanisms differentiate individuals who are more versus less proficient in general comprehension skill? In our first(More)
Covert orienting of visuospatial attention in response to peripherally presented cues was assessed in healthy younger and older adults and those with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) during a simple detection task. The results yield both an age-related increase (Experiments 1 and 2) and a DAT-related increase (Experiment 2) in the facilitatory effect of(More)
The present study provides a meta-analysis of cognitive rehabilitation literature (K = 115, N = 2,014) that was originally reviewed by K. D. Cicerone et al. (2000, 2005) for the purpose of providing evidence-based practice guidelines for persons with acquired brain injury. The analysis yielded a small treatment effect size (ES = .30, d(+) statistic)(More)
The present research examines the nature of the interference effects in a number of selective attention tasks. All of these tasks result in interference in performance by presenting information that is irrelevant to task performance but competes for selection. The interference from this competing information slows the response time (RT) of participants(More)
In two experiments we investigated the extent to which interference from contextually inappropriate information was attenuated or suppressed over time in the two cerebral hemispheres during sentence comprehension. Subjects viewed centrally presented sentences ending in either a homophone or a homograph and made speeded judgments as to whether a laterally(More)
The J. D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, and J. L. McClelland (1990) model of Stroop task performance is used to model data from a study by D. H. Spielder, D. A. Balota, and M. E. Faust (1996). The results indicate that the model fails to capture overall differences between word reading and color naming latencies when set size is increased beyond 2 response(More)
In two experiments we investigated the extent to which individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) manage the activation of contextually appropriate and inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words during sentence comprehension. DAT individuals and healthy older individuals read sentences that ended in ambiguous words and then determined if a test(More)