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Plants and animals activate defenses after perceiving pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial flagellin. In Arabidopsis, perception of flagellin increases resistance to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, although the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we show that a flagellin-derived peptide induces a plant(More)
The plant hormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. Recent studies indicate that auxin acts by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors through the action of the ubiquitin protein ligase SCF(TIR1). The nature of the signalling cascade that leads to this effect is not known. However, recent studies(More)
We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family(More)
The plant hormone auxin is central in many aspects of plant development. Previous studies have implicated the ubiquitin-ligase SCF(TIR1) and the AUX/IAA proteins in auxin response. Dominant mutations in several AUX/IAA genes confer pleiotropic auxin-related phenotypes, whereas recessive mutations affecting the function of SCF(TIR1) decrease auxin response.(More)
The plant hormone auxin has been implicated in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Auxin acts by promoting the degradation of transcriptional regulators called Aux/IAA proteins. Aux/IAA degradation requires TIR1, an F box protein that has been shown to function as an auxin receptor. However, loss of TIR1 has a modest effect on auxin(More)
Ethylene influences a number of developmental processes and responses to stress in higher plants. The molecular basis for the action of ethylene was investigated in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have altered responses to ethylene. One mutant line, which has a dominant mutation at a locus designated etr, lacks a number of responses to ethylene that(More)
Genetic analysis in Arabidopsis has led to the identification of several genes that are required for auxin response. One of these genes, AXR1, encodes a protein related to yeast Aos1p, a protein that functions to activate the ubiquitin-related protein Smt3p. Here we report the identification of a new gene called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1). The(More)
Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Perceived by a small family of F-box proteins including transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1), auxin regulates gene expression by promoting SCF ubiquitin-ligase-catalysed degradation of the Aux/IAA transcription repressors, but how the TIR1 F-box protein senses and(More)
We have screened a large population of M2 seeds ofArabidopsis thaliana for plants which are resistant to exogenously applied indole-acetic acid (IAA). One of the resistant lines identified in this screen carries a dominant mutation which we have namedaxr2. Linkage analysis indicates that theaxr2 gene lies on chromosome 3. Plants carrying theaxr2 mutation(More)
The COP9 signalosome is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex of unknown function that acts as a negative regulator of photomorphogenic seedling development in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that plants with reduced COP9 signalosome levels had decreased auxin response similar to loss-of-function mutants of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFTIR1. Furthermore,(More)