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The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A 'self-medication' framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states(More)
Evaluating medications in animal laboratory paradigms can reveal whether the compound is effective in an established alcoholism model, at clinically relevant doses and exposure conditions, when administered orally (or transdermally) and without serious limiting side effects. Positive outcomes constitute a possible discovery for relevance to alcoholism and,(More)
An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Alcohol dependence and chronic pain share common neural circuits giving rise to the possibility that(More)
Alcoholism is a major public health problem and resembles, in many ways, other chronic relapsing medical conditions. At least 2 separate dimensions of its symptomatology offer targetable pathophysiological mechanisms. Systems that mediate positive reinforcement by alcohol are likely important targets in early stages of the disease, particularly in(More)
Aggressive, escape and point-maintained operant responding of male marijuana smokers were measured during six 25-min sessions conducted over an 8-h experimental day. Aggressive responding ostensibly subtracted points exchangeable for money from another subject. Escape responding protected the subject's counter from point subtractions initiated by the other(More)
Vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-GABA), an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase, has been reported to be effective in the treatment of refractory epilepsies. Animal toxicology studies have shown that long-term application of vigabatrin induces intramyelinic edema and microvacuolation of the white matter in non-primate species. However,(More)
Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of(More)
Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio(More)
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Fort Lauderdale, FL. The organizers and chairpersons were Mark Egli and Todd E. Thiele. The presentations were (1) Voluntary alcohol consumption is modulated by central melanocortin receptors, by Todd E. Thiele; (2) Central infusion of(More)