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UNLABELLED Eye and head movements were recorded as unrestrained subjects tapped or only looked at nearby targets. Scanning patterns were the same in both tasks: subjects looked at each target before tapping it; visual search had similar speeds and gaze-shift accuracies. Looking, however, took longer and, unlike tapping, benefitted little from practice.(More)
The experiments reported here address the issue of whether the pathways which extract motion from first-order and second-order spatial patterns remain separate or whether they combine at some higher level in the motion system to form a single pathway. The question is addressed by investigating the interaction of first-order and second-order stimuli in the(More)
A number of psychophysical and physiological studies have suggested that first- and second-order motion signals are processed, at least initially, by independent pathways, and that the two pathways both consist of multiple motion-detecting channels that are each narrowly tuned to a different spatial scale (spatial frequency). However, the precise number and(More)
Adaptation to distorted faces is commonly interpreted as a shift in the face-space norm for the adapted attribute. This article shows that the size of the aftereffect varies as a function of the distortion level of the adapter. The pattern differed for different facial attributes, increasing with distortion level for symmetric deviations of eye height and(More)
Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations(More)
In periods characterized by diminished public market financing, small biotechnology firms appear to be more likely to fund R&D through alliances with major corporations rather than with internal funds (raised through the capital markets). We consider 200 alliance agreements entered into by biotechnology firms between 1980 and 1995. Agreements signed during(More)
The two-dimensional (2D) trajectory of visual motion is usually not directly available to the visual system. Local one-dimensional (1D) sensors initiate processing but can only restrict the solution to a set of speed and direction combinations consistent with the 2D trajectory. These 1D signals are then integrated across orientation and space to compute 2D(More)
Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to(More)
The paper examines the economic determinants and performance consequences of equity grants to employees in “new economy” firms. Our analysis is based on a unique proprietary database of compensation practices for senior-level executives, lower-level managers, and nonexempt employees. Despite claims about the unique characteristics of these firms, we find(More)