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OBJECTIVES To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of U.K. adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. DESIGN The research was conducted using the UK Biobank(More)
OBJECTIVE We explored the relationship between audiogram shape and tinnitus pitch to answer questions arising from neurophysiological models of tinnitus: 'Is the dominant tinnitus pitch associated with the edge of hearing loss?' and 'Is such a relationship more robust in people with narrow tinnitus bandwidth or steep sloping hearing loss?' DESIGN A(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has suggested that a substantial proportion of the population are severely affected by tinnitus, however recent population data are lacking. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that the perception of severity is closely related to personality factors such as neuroticism. OBJECTIVE In a subset (N=172,621) of a large(More)
Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical studies indicate increased risk for depression and anxiety among tinnitus patients. However population data are scarce, and no studies have controlled for neuroticism. We examined associations between tinnitus and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a large UK population, controlling for neuroticism, to explore whether neuroticism, as(More)
BACKGROUND Healthy hearing depends on sensitive ears and adequate brain processing. Essential aspects of both hearing and cognition decline with advancing age, but it is largely unknown how one influences the other. The current standard measure of hearing, the pure-tone audiogram is not very cognitively demanding and does not predict well the most important(More)
PURPOSE Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40-69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. (More)
The ability to reproducibly match tinnitus loudness and pitch is important to research and clinical management. Here we examine agreement and reliability of tinnitus loudness matching and pitch likeness ratings when using a computer-based method to measure the tinnitus spectrum and estimate a dominant tinnitus pitch, using tonal or narrowband sounds. Group(More)
Some forms of tinnitus are likely to be perceptual consequences of altered neural activity in the central auditory system triggered by damage to the auditory periphery. Animal studies report changes in the evoked responses after noise exposure or ototoxic drugs in inferior colliculus and auditory cortex. However, human electrophysiological evidence is(More)