Mark E Westhusin

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Sheep, mice, cattle, goats and pigs have all been cloned by transfer of a donor cell nucleus into an enucleated ovum, and now we add the successful cloning of a cat (Felis domesticus) to this list. However, this cloning technology may not be readily extendable to other mammalian species if our understanding of their reproductive processes is limited or if(More)
Nuclear reprogramming requires the removal of epigenetic modifications imposed on the chromatin during cellular differentiation and division. The mammalian oocyte can reverse these alterations to a state of totipotency, allowing the production of viable cloned offspring from somatic cell nuclei. To determine whether nuclear reprogramming is complete in(More)
The production of cloned animals is, at present, an inefficient process. This study focused on the fetal losses that occur between Days 30-90 of gestation. Fetal and placental characteristics were studied from Days 30-90 of gestation using transrectal ultrasonography, maternal pregnancy specific protein b (PSPb) levels, and postslaughter collection of fetal(More)
This study compared the nuclear transfer (NT) embryo development rates of adult and fetal cells within the same genotype. The adult fibroblast cells were obtained from a 21-yr-old Brahman bull. The fetal cells were derived from a Day 40 NT fetus previously cloned using cells from the Brahman bull. Overall, similar numbers of blastocysts developed from both(More)
The objective of the present study was to determine differences in time of detection of pregnancy between heifers and cows and the interval after insemination at which the maximum sensitivity and negative predictive value of transrectal ultrasonography were obtained. One-thousand-four-hundred transrectal ultrasonographies (TRUS-1; 1,079 in cows and 321 in(More)
The objective of this research was to evaluate if DNA hypomethylation in cells used as karyoplasts would improve development of bovine nuclear transplantation (NT) embryos. DNA from serum-fed (SF), serum-starved (SS), and 1, or 5 microM 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) treated cells was digested with a methylation sensitive enzyme, and evaluated for DNA(More)
The neonatal abnormalities, treatments and outcomes in a group of 13 cloned transgenic calves and fetuses that progressed into the third trimester of pregnancy are described. From these 13 fetuses, 8 calves were born live, 4 stillborn fetuses were recovered from 3 cows that died 7 d to 2 mo before term, and 1 aborted fetus was recovered at 8 mo gestation.(More)
Nuclear transplantations into metaphase II (MII) and S phase oocyte cytoplasm were performed to investigate the influence of recipient cell cycle stage on nuclear function and development of bovine nuclear transplant (NT) embryos. Rate of inactivation of histone H1 kinase and duration of DNA synthesis in activated oocytes were determined. The proportion of(More)
Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor 2 (EP2) are necessary for rodent cumulus expansion in vivo. Prostaglandin E(2) receptor 3 (EP3) has been detected in bovine preovulatory follicles and corpora lutea. The current experiments examined the effect of PGE(2) on bovine cumulus expansion in vitro and expression of(More)
Variation in the abundance of a specific gene transcript was assessed in single bovine oocytes and in vitro-derived blastocysts. Transcripts encoding the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified relative to an exogenously supplied rabbit alpha-globin mRNA using laser-induced(More)