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Molecular biological, histological and flicker electroretinographic results have established that mice have two cone photopigments, one peaking near 350 nm (UV-cone pigment) and a second near 510 nm [midwave (M)-cone pigment]. The goal of this investigation was to measure the action spectra and absolute sensitivities of the UV-cone- and M-cone-driven b-wave(More)
Retinal bipolar cells are essential to the transmission of light information. Although bipolar cell dysfunction can result in blindness, little is known about the factors required for bipolar cell development and functional maturation. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Bhlhb4 was found to be expressed in rod bipolar cells (RB).(More)
PURPOSE To measure the dependence of the size of the pupils of mice on steady retinal illumination. METHODS Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice aged 7 to 8 weeks were placed in a ganzfeld chamber in darkness, and in monochromatic (510 nm) and white light whose intensity was varied more than 6 log units. The pupils of the mice were photographed with an infrared(More)
We targeted 266 CAG repeats (a number that causes infantile-onset disease) into the mouse Sca7 locus to generate an authentic model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). These mice reproduced features of infantile SCA7 (ataxia, visual impairments, and premature death) and showed impaired short-term synaptic potentiation; downregulation of(More)
We developed and characterized a mouse model of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) to investigate the underlying cellular and genetic mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. IOP was unilaterally increased in C57BL/6J mice by photocoagulation of the episcleral and limbal veins. IOP was measured using an indentation tonometer. RGC survival was(More)
Mediated by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs), cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels regulate the activity of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase (GC) and the synthesis of cGMP, the internal transmitter of phototransduction. When GCAP1 is expressed in transgenic mice on a GCAP null background, it restores the wild-type flash responses in rod photoreceptors. In(More)
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an oligogenic syndrome whose manifestations include retinal degeneration, renal abnormalities, obesity and polydactylia. Evidence suggests that the main etiopathophysiology of this syndrome is impaired intraflagellar transport (IFT). In this study, we study the Bbs4-null mouse and investigate photoreceptor structure and(More)
Although the retina is thought to primarily rely on glucose for fuel, inherited deficiency of one or more activities of mitochondrial trifunctional protein results in a pigmentary retinopathy leading to vision loss. Many other enzymatic deficiencies in fatty acid oxidation pathways have been described, none of which results in retinal complications. The(More)
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental(More)
PURPOSE To correlate visual acuity of patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with mutations in underlying LCA genes. DESIGN Multicentered retrospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS After exclusion of 28 subjects, 169 patients with the diagnosis of LCA and 27 patients with early(More)