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The ability of an animal to detect weak sensory signals is limited, in part, by statistical fluctuations in the spike activity of sensory afferent nerve fibers. In weakly electric fish, probability coding (P-type) electrosensory afferents encode amplitude modulations of the fish's self-generated electric field and provide information necessary for(More)
Sensory systems are faced with the task of extracting behaviorally relevant information from complex sensory environments. In general, sensory acquisition involves two aspects: the control of peripheral sensory surfaces to improve signal reception and the subsequent neural filtering of incoming sensory signals to extract and enhance signals of interest. The(More)
Animals can actively influence the content and quality of sensory information they acquire from the environment through the positioning of peripheral sensory surfaces. This study investigated receptor surface positioning during prey-capture behavior in weakly electric gymnotiform fish of the genus Apteronotus. Infrared video techniques and three-dimensional(More)
The first stage of information processing in the electrosensory system involves the encoding of local changes in transdermal potential into trains of action potentials in primary electrosensory afferent nerve fibers. To develop a quantitative model of this encoding process for P-type (probability-coding) afferent fibers in the weakly electric fish(More)
Two functional types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed when human embryonic kidney cells are permanently transfected with equal amounts of human alpha4 and beta2 subunit cDNAs. Most (82%) of these nAChRs exhibit an EC(50) of 74 +/- 6 microM for ACh, a much lower sensitivity than the remaining fraction (EC(50) of 0.7 +/- 0.4 microM)(More)
Human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes alpha3 beta2, alpha3 beta2 alpha5, alpha3 beta4, and alpha3 beta4 alpha5 were stably expressed in cells derived from the human embryonic kidney cell line 293. alpha3 beta4 AChRs were found in prominent 2-micrometer patches on the cell surface, whereas most alpha3 beta2 AChRs were more diffusely(More)
This paper describes a six-legged robot based on the features of an agile insect, the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. The robot is designed with insect-like leg structure and placement, and actuators that mimic muscles. A test leg is also described that shows how sensory feedback can serve as the basis of the control system for the robot in order(More)
Weakly electric fish are able to detect and localize prey based on microvolt-level perturbations in the fish's self-generated electric field. In natural environments, weak prey-related signals are embedded in much stronger electrosensory background noise. To better characterize the signal and background components associated with natural electrolocation(More)
We prepared concatamers of ␣4 and ␤2 subunits for human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), in which the C terminus of ␣4 was linked to the N terminus of ␤2, or vice versa, via a tripeptide sequence repeated 6 or 12 times, and expressed them in Xenopus oocytes. Linkage did not substantially alter channel amplitude or channel open-duration. Linkage at(More)
A defining feature of active sensing is the use of self-generated energy to probe the environment. Familiar biological examples include echolocation in bats and dolphins and active electrolocation in weakly electric fish. Organisms that utilize active sensing systems can potentially exert control over the characteristics of the probe energy, such as its(More)