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The conventional view of neurons is that synaptic inputs are integrated on a timescale of milliseconds to seconds in the dendrites, with action potential initiation occurring in the axon initial segment. We found a much slower form of integration that leads to action potential initiation in the distal axon, well beyond the initial segment. In a subset of(More)
Establishing the hippocampal cellular ensemble that represents an animal's environment involves the emergence and disappearance of place fields in specific CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the acquisition of different spatial firing properties across the active population. While such firing flexibility and diversity have been linked to spatial memory, attention(More)
We recently described a new form of neural integration and firing in a subset of interneurons, in which evoking hundreds of action potentials over tens of seconds to minutes produces a sudden barrage of action potentials lasting about a minute beyond the inciting stimulation. During this persistent firing, action potentials are generated in the distal axon(More)
also examined microglial gene expression. The only sex-specific difference that they observed was in expression of the purinergic receptor P2RX4: it was upregulated only in nerve-injured male mice (Fig. 1). Following neuropathic injury, the spinal cord becomes infiltrated with adaptive immune cells, including T cells, which are implicated in mechanical(More)
Establishing the hippocampal cellular ensemble that represents an animal's environment involves the emergence and disappearance of place fields in specific CA1 pyramidal neurons 1–4 , and the acquisition of different spatial firing properties across the active population 5. While such firing flexibility and diversity have been linked to spatial memory,(More)
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