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To obtain insight into the site and stage specificity of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) action in vivo, we compared the expression patterns of the genes for these three related neurotrophic factors as well as for the NGF receptor in developing and adult rats. Initial embryonic expression of(More)
Stem cells capable of differentiating to multiple lineages may be valuable for therapy. We report the isolation of human and rodent amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells that express embryonic and adult stem cell markers. Undifferentiated AFS cells expand extensively without feeders, double in 36 h and are not tumorigenic. Lines maintained for over 250(More)
The development and maintenance of the nervous system depends on proteins known as neurotrophic factors. Although the prototypical neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), has been intensively studied for decades, the discovery and characterization of additional such factors has been impeded by their low abundance. Sequence homologies between NGF and(More)
Human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs), which are pluripotent precursors of hepatoblasts and thence of hepatocytic and biliary epithelia, are located in ductal plates in fetal livers and in Canals of Hering in adult livers. They can be isolated by immunoselection for epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive (EpCAM+) cells, and they constitute approximately(More)
A variety of findings seem to functionally link brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), while distinguishing both of these factors from the third member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF). Here we demonstrate that all three of these neuronal survival molecules bind similarly to the low affinity NGF receptor,(More)
Although neurotrophic factors were originally isolated on the basis of their ability to support the survival of neurons, these molecules are now thought to influence many aspects of the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Identifying the receptors for these neurotrophic factors should aid in identifying the cells on which these factors act(More)
Adult rat sciatic nerve is known to express high levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) mRNA and protein. Here we examine the cellular localization of CNTF protein and mRNA in peripheral nerve and the regulation of CNTF expression by peripheral axons. In intact nerve, CNTF immunoreactivity is found predominantly in the cytoplasm of myelin-related(More)
The lack of reagents or molecular probes specific for the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor has hindered characterization of the molecular mechanism(s) by which CNTF influences the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of cells of the vertebrate nervous system. We have developed methods for the detection and separation of cells expressing(More)
The development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system depends upon neuronal survival proteins known as neurotrophic factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) remains the best characterized neurotrophic molecule. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are two recently cloned neurotrophic factors that are homologous to NGF.(More)
The human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene was identified and cloned, based on homology with the recently cloned rat cDNA. The gene encodes a protein of 200 amino acids, which shares about 80% sequence identity with rat and rabbit CNTF and, like these homologues, lacks an apparent secretion signal sequence. The human CNTF gene, like the rat gene,(More)