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Syntaxin/SNAP-25 interactions precede assembly of the ternary SNARE complex that is essential for neurotransmitter release. This binary complex has been difficult to characterize by bulk methods because of the prevalence of a 2:1 dead-end species. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence, we find the structure of the 1:1 syntaxin/SNAP-25 binary complex is(More)
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in critical cellular functions that exploit the flexibility and rapid conformational fluctuations of their native state. Limited information about the native state of IDPs can be gained by the averaging over many heterogeneous molecules that is unavoidable in ensemble approaches. We used single molecule(More)
The assembly of multiprotein complexes at the membrane interface governs many signaling processes in cells. However, very few methods exist for obtaining biophysical information about protein complex formation at the membrane. We used single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study complexin and synaptotagmin interactions with the SNARE(More)
SNAREs are essential components of the machinery for Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in neurotransmitter release into the synaptic cleft. Although much is known about their biophysical and structural properties and their interactions with accessory proteins such as the Ca(2+) sensor synaptotagmin, their(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels with a modular structure. The ion channel itself shares structural similarity, albeit an inverted membrane topology, with P-loop channels. Like P-loop channels, prokaryotic GluR subunits (e.g. GluR0) have two transmembrane segments. In contrast, eukaryotic GluRs have an additional(More)
Scaffold proteins form a framework to organize signal transduction by binding multiple partners within a signaling pathway. This shapes the output of signal responses as well as providing specificity and localization. The Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinases (MAGuKs) are scaffold proteins at cellular junctions that localize cell surface receptors and link(More)
NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with a regulatory intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD). In GluN2B, the CTD is the largest domain in the protein but is intrinsically disordered. The GluN2B subunit is the major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in synapses. Src kinase phosphorylates the GluN2B CTD, but it is unknown how this affects channel(More)
Multidomain scaffold proteins serve as hubs in the signal transduction network. By physically colocalizing sequential steps in a transduction pathway, scaffolds catalyze and direct incoming signals. Much is known about binary interactions with individual domains, but it is unknown whether "scaffolding activity" is predictable from pairwise affinities. Here,(More)
Synaptobrevin 2 is thought to facilitate fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane through formation of a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex (SNARE) with syntaxin 1a and a synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). Previous reports have described a homodimer of synaptobrevin that is dependent on the transmembrane(More)
Tandem PDZ domains have been suggested to form structurally independent supramodules. However, dissimilarity between crystallography and NMR models emphasize their malleable conformation. Studies in full-length scaffold proteins are needed to examine the effect of tertiary interactions within their native context. Using single-molecule fluorescence to(More)