Mark E. Arnold

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An important aspect of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic has been an apparent age-dependent risk of infection, with younger cattle being more likely to become infected than older cattle. Our objective was to determine the age-dependent risk of infection of dairy cattle. We first reviewed unpublished data on the feeding patterns of(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)
To provide information on dose–response and aid in modelling the exposure dynamics of the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom groups of cattle were exposed orally to a range of different doses of brainstem homogenate of known infectious titre from clinical cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Interim data from this study was published(More)
Previous modelling studies have estimated that between 1% and 10% of human salmonella infections are attributable to pig meat consumption. In response to this food safety threat the British pig industry have initiated a salmonella monitoring programme. It is anticipated that this programme will contribute to achieving a UK Food Standards Agency target for(More)
The objective of this study was to develop and parametrize a mathematical model of the sensitivity of pooled sampling of faeces to detect Salmonella infection in pigs. A mathematical model was developed to represent the effect of pooling on the probability of Salmonella isolation. Parameters for the model were estimated using data obtained by collecting 50(More)
After the decline of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in Great Britain (GB), scrapie remains the most prevalent animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) present in GB. A number of control measures have been implemented for classical scrapie, and since 2005 there has been a large reduction in the number of observed cases. The(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout(More)
AIMS To investigate the effectiveness of pooled sampling methods for detection of Salmonella in turkey flocks. METHODS AND RESULTS Individual turkey droppings were taken from 43 flocks, with half the dropping tested for Salmonella as an individual sample and the other half included in a pool of five. A pair of boot swabs and a dust sample were also taken(More)
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically significant viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination can be used to help restrict the spread of the infection, but evidence must be provided to show that the infection has been eradicated in order to regain the FMD-free status. While serological tests have been developed, which(More)
Sheep with an ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype at codon positions 136/154/171 are highly susceptible to experimental infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, a number of sheep challenged orally or intracerebrally with BSE were clinically asymptomatic and found to survive or were diagnosed as BSE-negative when culled. Sequencing of the full PRNP(More)