Learn More
The human APOBEC3 proteins are DNA cytidine deaminases that impede the replication of many different transposons and viruses. The genes that encode APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, APOBEC3C, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H were generated through relatively recent recombination events. The resulting high degree of inter-relatedness has complicated the(More)
The most common transposable genetic element in humans, long interspersed element 1 (L1), constitutes about 20% of the genome. The activity of L1 and related transposons such as Alu elements causes disease and contributes to speciation. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms that control their spread. We show that expression of human APOBEC3B or(More)
Bacteria evolved restriction endonucleases to prevent interspecies DNA transmission and bacteriophage infection. Here we show that human cells possess an analogous mechanism. APOBEC3A is induced by interferon following DNA detection, and it deaminates foreign double-stranded DNA cytidines to uridines. These atypical DNA nucleosides are converted by the(More)
The human APOBEC3G protein is an innate anti-viral factor that can dominantly inhibit the replication of some endogenous and exogenous retroviruses. The prospects of purposefully harnessing such an anti-viral defense are under investigation. Here, long-term co-culture experiments were used to show that porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission from(More)
In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the(More)
Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of(More)
Four promoters, Cp, Wp, Fp and Qp, are known to participate in transcription of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene in EBV-infected cell lines. The promoters are used differentially during the different phases of infection and establishment of the stages of latency. This has raised questions about the regulation of the promoters and(More)
APOBEC3G limits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, other retroviruses, and retrotransposons. It localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm of cells, which is consistent with a model wherein cytosolic APOBEC3G packages into assembling virions, where it exerts its antiviral effect by deaminating viral cDNA cytosines during reverse(More)
Knowledge of bornaviruses has expanded considerably during the last decade. A possible reservoir of mammalian Borna disease virus has been identified, divergent bornaviruses have been detected in birds and reptiles, and endogenous bornavirus-like elements have been discovered in the genomes of vertebrates of several species. Previous sequence comparisons(More)
UNLABELLED Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious fatal disease of snakes typified by behavioral abnormalities, wasting, and secondary infections. At a histopathological level, the disease is identified by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple tissues. To date, no virus or other pathogen has been definitively(More)