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The yeast KAR2 gene was isolated by complementation of a mutation that blocks nuclear fusion. The predicted KAR2 protein sequence is most homologous to mammalian BiP/GRP78 and has several structural features in common with it: a functional secretory signal sequence, a yeast endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (HDEL) at the carboxyl terminus, and the(More)
We identified two new Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-related genes, KIP1 and KIP2, using polymerase chain reaction primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of the kinesin motor domain. Both KIP proteins are expressed in vivo, but deletion mutations conferred no phenotype. Moreover, kip1 kip2 double mutants and a triple mutant with kinesin-related(More)
NATURE | VOL 407 | 21 SEPTEMBER 2000 | www.nature.com 395 SuperScript II reverse transcriptase (GibcoBRL) and the anchored oligo-dT primer set (Genosys). The cDNA was than amplified by PCR. The SOD1 primers were from Genosys (forwards, 59-ACGAAGGCCGTGTGCGTGCTGAA; backwards, 59-ACCACAAGCCAAACGACTTCCAGC). The reaction was run at 94 8C (1 min), 60 8C (1 min),(More)
BiP/GRP78 is an essential member of the HSP70 family that resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In yeast, BiP/GRP78 is encoded by the KAR2 gene. A temperature sensitive mutation was isolated in KAR2 and found to cause a rapid block in protein secretion. Secretory precursors of a number of proteins (invertase, carboxypeptidase Y, alpha-factor,(More)
Mutants of the yeast Kar3 protein are defective in nuclear fusion, or karyogamy, during mating and show slow mitotic growth, indicating a requirement for the protein both during mating and in mitosis. DNA sequence analysis predicts that Kar3 is a microtubule motor protein related to kinesin, but with the motor domain at the C-terminus of the protein rather(More)
kar9 was originally identified as a bilateral karyogamy mutant, in which the two zygotic nuclei remained widely separated and the cytoplasmic microtubules were misoriented (Kurihara, L.J., C.T. Beh, M. Latterich, R. Schekman, and M.D. Rose. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 126:911-923.). We now report a general defect in nuclear migration and microtubule orientation in(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, positioning of the mitotic spindle requires both the cytoplasmic microtubules and actin. Kar9p is a novel cortical protein that is required for the correct position of the mitotic spindle and the orientation of the cytoplasmic microtubules. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)- Kar9p localizes to a single spot at the tip of(More)
Although transiently associated with numerous newly synthesized proteins, BiP has not been shown to be an essential component directly linked to the folding and oligomerization of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. To determine whether it is needed as a molecular chaperone, we analyzed the maturation of an endogenous yeast(More)
Secretory proteins are segregated from cytosolic proteins by their translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A modified secretory protein trapped during translocation across the ER membrane can be crosslinked to two previously identified proteins, Sec61p and BiP (Kar2p). The dependence of this cross-linking upon proteins and small molecules was(More)