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BACKGROUND Global control of tuberculosis is hampered by slow, insensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for the detection of drug-resistant forms and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Early detection is essential to reduce the death rate and interrupt transmission, but the complexity and infrastructure needs of sensitive methods(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) can detect tuberculosis and its multidrug-resistant form with very high sensitivity and specificity in controlled studies, but no performance data exist from district and subdistrict health facilities in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess operational feasibility, accuracy, and(More)
Current nucleic acid amplification methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis are complex, labor-intensive, and technically challenging. We developed and performed the first analysis of the Cepheid Gene Xpert System's MTB/RIF assay, an integrated hands-free sputum-processing and real-time PCR system with rapid on-demand, near-patient technology, to(More)
The attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered to prevent tuberculosis. Complications of vaccination are uncommon. We report a new case of disseminated BCG disease and review 27 additional cases identified from a review of > 5,000 reports published between 1980 and 1996. Twenty-four of the 28 total cases were associated with an immune(More)
Most of the world's tuberculosis cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where sputum microscopy with a conventional light microscope is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. A major shortcoming of conventional microscopy is its relatively low sensitivity compared with culture, especially in patients co-infected with HIV.(More)
In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. The method is fast, inexpensive, and specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high incidence areas. The main limitations of direct microscopy are its relatively low sensitivity, especially in individuals(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to global health, recently exacerbated by the emergence of highly drug-resistant forms of the disease-causing pathogen and synergy with HIV/AIDS. In 2006, the Stop TB Partnership published "The global plan to stop TB: 2006--2015," which set out a vision of halving the prevalence of and mortality caused by the disease by(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two(More)
This product is part of the RAND Health working paper series. RAND working papers are intended to share researchers' latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. They have been approved for circulation by RAND Health but have not been formally edited or peer reviewed. Unless otherwise indicated, working papers can be quoted and cited without(More)
BACKGROUND Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a promising new rapid diagnostic technology for tuberculosis (TB) that has characteristics that suggest large-scale roll-out. However, because the test is expensive, there are concerns among TB program managers and policy makers regarding its affordability for low- and middle-income settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS We(More)