Mark D. Norman

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The resolution of higher level phylogeny of the coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes) has been hindered by homoplasy among morphological characters in conjunction with a very poor fossil record. Initial molecular studies, based primarily on small fragments of single mitochondrial genes, have produced little resolution of the deep(More)
Octopus has been regarded as a "catch all" genus, yet its monophyly is questionable and has been untested. We inferred a broad-scale phylogeny of the benthic shallow-water octopuses (subfamily Octopodinae) using amino acid sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes: Cytochrome oxidase subunit III and Cytochrome b apoenzyme, and the nuclear DNA gene Elongation(More)
The 'ctenoglossans' are an enigmatic group of transparent, pelagic octopuses that spend their entire life without touching the seafloor. Molecular and morphological evidence shows that the ctenoglossans have arisen via neoteny, the persistence of larval attributes in the adult form. The ctenoglossans have evolved from the planktonic early-dispersal stages(More)
one to four in the mother tongue of the participants. E continued to demonstrate the movement sequence until participants could reproduce it by themselves. Then, E rotated them 180 degrees around their own axis, and positioned himself behind them (Figure 1: Rotation 1). E asked the participants to ‘dance again’. After the participants performed, E rotated(More)
During research dives in Indonesia (Sulawesi and Bali), we filmed a distinctive long-armed octopus, which is new to science. Diving over 24 h periods revealed that the 'mimic octopus' emerges during daylight hours to forage on sand substrates in full view of pelagic fish predators. We observed nine individuals of this species displaying a repertoire of(More)
Despite its charismatic appeal to both scientists and the general public, remarkably little is known about the giant squid Architeuthis, one of the largest of the invertebrates. Although specimens of Architeuthis are becoming more readily available owing to the advancement of deep-sea fishing techniques, considerable controversy exists with regard to topics(More)
Difficulties in elucidating the evolutionary history of the octopods have arisen from problems in identifying informative morphological characters. Recent classifications have divided the largest group, the incirrate octopods, into five groups. These include the pelagic superfamily Argonautoidea and three gelatinous pelagic families (Vitreledonellidae,(More)
This study provides comprehensive proteomic profiles from the venom producing posterior salivary glands of octopus (superorder Octopodiformes) species. A combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify 1703 proteins from the posterior salivary gland of the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa and 1300 proteins from the(More)
BACKGROUND Sex differences in reproductive investment play a crucial role in sexual conflict. One intriguing aspect of sexual conflict is the evolution of female multiple mating (polyandry), particularly in systems where females receive no obvious direct benefits from males, and where mating is highly costly. Here, theory predicts that polyandrous females(More)