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The effect of three oestrogens (including an oestrogen-progestogen combination) on the postexercise electrocardiogram was studied in 33 men and 18 women who earlier had shown ST segment abnormalities after exercise. When pretreatment exercise tests were compared with tests after two weeks of treatment, the postexercise ST segments which were abnormal before(More)
Over the past few years, CMOS Silicon-oninsulator (SOI) has emerged as the dominant technology for RF switches in RF front end modules for cell phones and WiFi. RF SOI technologies were created from silicon processes originally used for high speed logic applications, but the technology was modified to meet the performance needs of RF switches. The RF SOI(More)
In this study, we define and investigate the maximum power handling capability (Pmax) in an SOI RF shunt branch switch. One of the critical factor in the Pmax is the non-uniform voltage division across an OFF shunt branch. In this study we provide a simple analytical method to determine the stack voltage imbalance. The Pmax is characterized as a function of(More)
Three novel CSP pad designs in a 0.18mum CMOS image sensor Cu interconnect technology were analyzed for use with a wafer level CSP (WLCSP) package. The CSP pad designs used various combinations of available aluminum and tungsten interconnect levels in order to improve the cross-sectional area without increasing the total stack height of the Cu interconnect(More)
The warm-up phenomenon, in which the second of two successive exercise tests manifests less ischaemia than the first, was studied to find out whether it results from decreased myocardial oxygen consumption or from increased coronary-artery blood-flow during the second test. Patients performed an initial exercise test, then continued to exercise for 30(More)
The reliability of circuits (wiring and vias) under bond pads has been studied for both Au wire bonding and Cu wire bonding, for bond pads and wiring levels typical of those used in RF technology. Electrical test structures under bond pads were used to characterize wire and via integrity after wire bonding and reliability stresses. In addition, SEM analysis(More)
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