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Damage induces remote occlusion of sieve tubes in Vicia faba by forisome dispersion, triggered during the passage of an electropotential wave (EPW). This study addresses the role of Ca2+ channels and cytosolic Ca2+ elevation as a link between EPWs and forisome dispersion. Ca2+ channel antagonists affect the initial phase of the EPW as well as the prolonged(More)
Reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1 and roGFP2) were expressed in different sub-cellular compartments of Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves to empirically determine their performance as ratiometric redox sensors for confocal imaging in planta. A lower redox-dependent change in fluorescence in combination with reduced excitation(More)
The cytoplasmic pH of growing pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. was measured using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfl uorescein and confocal fluorescence ratio imaging. The average cytoplasmic pH in the clear zone of the pollen tube tip was pH 7.11, and no consistent pH gradients were detected in the clear(More)
Transport networks are ubiquitous in both social and biological systems. Robust network performance involves a complex trade-off involving cost, transport efficiency, and fault tolerance. Biological networks have been honed by many cycles of evolutionary selection pressure and are likely to yield reasonable solutions to such combinatorial optimization(More)
Metabolic adjustments are a significant, but poorly understood, part of the response of plants to oxidative stress. In a previous study (Baxter et al., 2007), the metabolic response of Arabidopsis cells in culture to induction of oxidative stress by menadione was characterized. An emergency survival strategy was uncovered in which anabolic primary(More)
Plant-derived nitric oxide (NO) triggers defence, priming the onset of the hypersensitive response and restricting pathogen ingress during incompatibility. However, little is known about the role of pathogen-produced NO during pre-infection development and infection. We sought evidence for NO production by the rice blast fungus during early infection. NO(More)
Levels of glutathione were measured for different cell types in roots of intact Arabidopsis seedlings after labelling with monochlorobimane to give fluorescent glutathione S-bimane (GSB) and imaging using confocal laser scanning microscopy with excitation at 442 nm. Labelling increased to a plateau in most cell types after about 15-20 min and the GSB(More)
Tight control of cellular redox homeostasis is essential for protection against oxidative damage and for maintenance of normal metabolism as well as redox signaling events. Under oxidative stress conditions, the tripeptide glutathione can switch from its reduced form (GSH) to oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and thus, forms an important cellular redox(More)
The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or(More)
Fluorescent protein markers are widely used to report plant membrane traffic; however, effective protocols to quantify fluorescence or marker expression are lacking. Here the 20 residue self-cleaving 2A peptide from Foot and Mouth Disease Virus was used to construct polyproteins that expressed a trafficked marker in fixed stoichiometry with a reference(More)