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The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or(More)
Transport networks are ubiquitous in both social and biological systems. Robust network performance involves a complex trade-off involving cost, transport efficiency, and fault tolerance. Biological networks have been honed by many cycles of evolutionary selection pressure and are likely to yield reasonable solutions to such combinatorial optimization(More)
Transport networks are vital components of multicellular organisms, distributing nutrients and removing waste products. Animal and plant transport systems are branching trees whose architecture is linked to universal scaling laws in these organisms. In contrast, many fungi form reticulated mycelia via the branching and fusion of thread-like hyphae that(More)
Many biomedical applications require the enhancement of coherent flow-like curvilinear structures in images. This can be accomplished in a natural way by adopting anisotropic diffusion filtering to local texture analysis by means of the structure tensor. Here we propose a contrast independent anisotropic diffusion filtering of curvilinear structures based(More)
Many biological, geophysical, and technological systems involve the transport of a resource over a network. In this paper, we present an efficient method for calculating the exact quantity of the resource in each part of an arbitrary network, where the resource is lost or delivered out of the network at a given rate, while being subject to advection and(More)
MOTIVATION Fungi form extensive interconnected mycelial networks that scavenge efficiently for scarce resources in a heterogeneous environment. The architecture of the network is highly responsive to local nutritional cues, damage or predation, and continuously adapts through growth, branching, fusion or regression. These networks also provide an example of(More)
The nuclear envelope consists of a double-membraned extension of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In this report we describe long, dynamic tubular channels, derived from the nuclear envelope, that extend deep into the nucleoplasm. These channels show cell-type specific morphologies ranging from single short stubs to multiple, complex, branched structures.(More)
Many biomedical applications require detection of curvilinear structures in images and would benefit from automatic or semiautomatic segmentation to allow high-throughput measurements. Here, we propose a contrast-independent approach to identify curvilinear structures based on oriented phase congruency, i.e., the phase congruency tensor (PCT). We show that(More)