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OBJECTIVE We aimed to provide information that can be used as a guide to clinicians when advising breastfeeding mothers on normal lactation with regard to the frequency and volume of breastfeedings and the fat content of breast milk. METHODS Mothers (71) of infants who were 1 to 6 months of age and exclusively breastfeeding on demand test-weighed their(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the strength of applied vacuum on the flow rate and yield of breastmilk using an electric breast pump. STUDY DESIGN Twenty-one breastfeeding mothers and two expressing mothers expressed their breastmilk for 15 minutes using an electric breast pump set at their own maximum comfortable vacuum, and at one to three softer(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the uptake of prolactin from the blood into the milk may be restricted when the alveolus is distended with milk. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between prolactin in milk and milk production by measuring the concentration of prolactin in samples of fore- and hind-milk as well as the(More)
BACKGROUND Lactogenesis II describes the onset of copious milk secretion, and the success of lactogenesis II has been determined in women by measuring the changes in the composition of mammary secretion in the immediate postpartum period. AIM AND METHODS Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the success of lactogenesis II at day 5 postpartum(More)
The initiation of lactation (lactogenesis II) by the mother must be synchronized to the delivery of the infant, permitting the transition of the newborn from continuous nourishment from the umbilical cord to comparable but intermittent life support from its mother's breasts. The onset of lactogenesis II can be adversely affected by a variety of factors.(More)
Stem cells in mammary tissue have been well characterised by using the mammary stem cell marker, cytokeratin (CK) 5 and the mature epithelial markers CK14, CK18 and CK19. As these markers have never been reported in cells from breastmilk, the aim of this study has been to determine whether mammary stem cells are present in expressed human breastmilk.(More)
Currently there is no simple method available to assess milk ejection and breast milk flow in lactating women in both the clinical and research setting. The authors hypothesize that changes in milk flow rate are associated with milk ejection and therefore may provide a method suitable for the assessment of milk ejection and removal. Mothers (n = 23)(More)
BACKGROUND Mammary stem cells have been extensively studied as a system to delineate the pathogenesis and treatment of breast cancer. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies which limit the quantity of samples available. We have previously identified putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk, and here, we further(More)