Mark D. Chatfield

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OBJECTIVES Longitudinal studies of the elderly are complicated by the loss of individuals between waves due to death or other dropout mechanisms. Factors that affect dropout may well be similar from one study to another. This article systematically reviews all large population-based studies of the elderly (published 1966-2002) that report on differences in(More)
BACKGROUND Severity scores are commonly used in research and clinically to assess the severity of bronchiolitis. However, there are limitations as few have been validated. The aim of our study was to: (i) determine the validity and reliability of a bronchiolitis scoring system, and (ii) examine if the score predicted the need for oxygen at 12 and 24 hrs.(More)
Mechanical loading is thought to be a determinant of bone mass and geometry. Both ground reaction forces and tibial strains increase with running speed. This study investigates the hypothesis that surrogates of bone strength in male and female master sprinters, middle and long distance runners and race-walkers vary according to discipline-specific(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin sensitivity (Si) is improved by weight loss and exercise, but the effects of the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or carbohydrates of high glycemic index (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) are uncertain. OBJECTIVE We conducted a dietary intervention trial to study these effects in(More)
UNLABELLED Study Type - Prognosis (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Only 30-35% of patients with positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy develop recurrent disease. Adjuvant radiotherapy reduces the rate of biochemical relapse or metastasis and improves overall survival after radical(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). METHODS In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika,(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). METHODS Plasma samples were collected(More)
Recommendations for whole-grain (WG) intake are based on observational studies showing that higher WG consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. No large-scale, randomised, controlled dietary intervention studies have investigated the effects on CVD risk markers of substituting WG in place of refined grains in the diets of non-WG consumers. A total of(More)
Abdominal fat, and in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is the critical fat depot associated with metabolic aberrations. At present, VAT can only be accurately measured by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to compare a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device against total abdominal adipose(More)
INTRODUCTION Survival after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is variable in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and there are no validated prognostic factors that could be used preoperatively. We investigated the calretinin and D2-40 expression and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation as potential(More)