Mark Campbell Williams

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The human APOBEC3 proteins are a family of DNA-editing enzymes that play an important role in the innate immune response against retroviruses and retrotransposons. APOBEC3G is a member of this family that inhibits HIV-1 replication in the absence of the viral infectivity factor Vif. Inhibition of HIV replication occurs by both deamination of viral(More)
APOBEC3G (A3G), a host protein that inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription and replication in the absence of Vif, displays cytidine deaminase and single-stranded (ss) nucleic acid binding activities. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) also binds nucleic acids and has a unique property, nucleic acid chaperone activity, which is crucial for efficient reverse(More)
Seven outbreaks involving increasing numbers of banded mongoose troops and high death rates have been documented. We identified a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi sp. nov., as the causative agent among banded mongooses that live near humans in Chobe District, Botswana. Host spectrum and transmission dynamics remain unknown.
The Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 is essential for retroviral replication and packaging. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is the primary region for the interaction of Gag with nucleic acids. In this study, we examine the interactions of Gag and its NC cleavage products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) with nucleic acids using solution and single molecule experiments. The NC(More)
L1 is a ubiquitous interspersed repeated sequence in mammals that achieved its high copy number by autonomous retrotransposition. Individual L1 elements within a genome differ in sequence and retrotransposition activity. Retrotransposition requires two L1-encoded proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p. Chimeric elements were used to map a 15-fold difference in(More)
The mechanism by which sequence non-specific DNA-binding proteins enhance DNA flexibility is studied by examining complexes of double-stranded DNA with the high mobility group type B proteins HMGB2 (Box A) and HMGB1 (Box A+B) using atomic force microscopy. DNA end-to-end distances and local DNA bend angle distributions are analyzed for protein complexes(More)
Actinomycin D (ActD) is a small molecule with strong antibiotic and anticancer activity. However, its biologically relevant DNA-binding mechanism has never been resolved, with some studies suggesting that the primary binding mode is intercalation, and others suggesting that single-stranded DNA binding is most important. To resolve this controversy, we(More)
Expansion of ecotourism-based industries, changes in land-use practices, and escalating competition for resources have increased contact between free-ranging wildlife and humans. Although human presence in wildlife areas may provide an important economic benefit through ecotourism, exposure to human pathogens may represent a health risk for wildlife. This(More)
The regulation of chromatin structure in eukaryotic cells involves abundant architectural factors such as high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins. It is not understood how these factors control the interplay between genome accessibility and compaction. In vivo, HMO1 binds the promoter and coding regions of most ribosomal RNA genes, facilitating transcription(More)
Retrotransposition amplifies LINE-1 (L1) to high copy number in mammalian genomes. The L1 protein encoded by ORF1 (ORF1p) is required for retrotransposition. This dependence on ORF1p was investigated by mutating three highly conserved residues, R238, R284 and Y318 to alanine, thereby inactivating retrotransposition. R284A and Y318A were rescued by further(More)