Mark Campbell Williams

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Baboons from some families have a higher concentration of plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) on a chow diet and accumulate large HDL (HDL1) when challenged with a high cholesterol and high saturated fat (HCHF) diet. HDL1 from high HDL1 animals contained more (1.5-fold) cholesteryl ester than HDL (HDL2 + HDL3) from high or low HDL1 animals. HDL from high(More)
APOBEC3G (A3G), a host protein that inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription and replication in the absence of Vif, displays cytidine deaminase and single-stranded (ss) nucleic acid binding activities. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) also binds nucleic acids and has a unique property, nucleic acid chaperone activity, which is crucial for efficient reverse(More)
The Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 is essential for retroviral replication and packaging. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is the primary region for the interaction of Gag with nucleic acids. In this study, we examine the interactions of Gag and its NC cleavage products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) with nucleic acids using solution and single molecule experiments. The NC(More)
Fluid-filled lumina of fetal rat lungs contain lamellar bodies (LBs) as well as tubular myelin (TM), both of which are thought to be stores of phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant. The alveolar epithelium is believed to secrete LBs, but neither the origin nor the mechanism of TM formation is entirely certain. The main objective of this study was to(More)
We used single DNA molecule stretching to investigate DNA intercalation by ethidium and three ruthenium complexes. By measuring ligand-induced DNA elongation at different ligand concentrations, we determined the binding constant and site size as a function of force. Both quantities depend strongly on force and, in the limit of zero force, converge to the(More)
The mechanism by which sequence non-specific DNA-binding proteins enhance DNA flexibility is studied by examining complexes of double-stranded DNA with the high mobility group type B proteins HMGB2 (Box A) and HMGB1 (Box A+B) using atomic force microscopy. DNA end-to-end distances and local DNA bend angle distributions are analyzed for protein complexes(More)
L1 is a ubiquitous interspersed repeated sequence in mammals that achieved its high copy number by autonomous retrotransposition. Individual L1 elements within a genome differ in sequence and retrotransposition activity. Retrotransposition requires two L1-encoded proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p. Chimeric elements were used to map a 15-fold difference in(More)
Actinomycin D (ActD) is a small molecule with strong antibiotic and anticancer activity. However, its biologically relevant DNA-binding mechanism has never been resolved, with some studies suggesting that the primary binding mode is intercalation, and others suggesting that single-stranded DNA binding is most important. To resolve this controversy, we(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone that facilitates the remodeling of nucleic acids during various steps of the viral life cycle. Two main features of NC's chaperone activity are its abilities to aggregate and to destabilize nucleic acids. These functions are associated with NC's highly basic(More)
The human APOBEC3 proteins are a family of DNA-editing enzymes that play an important role in the innate immune response against retroviruses and retrotransposons. APOBEC3G is a member of this family that inhibits HIV-1 replication in the absence of the viral infectivity factor Vif. Inhibition of HIV replication occurs by both deamination of viral(More)