Mark C M van Loosdrecht

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From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. 'Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium(More)
Nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a potent greenhouse gas, can be emitted during wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas footprint. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have demonstrated that N(2)O can be emitted in substantial amounts during nitrogen removal in WWTPs, however, a large variation in(More)
Understanding the emergence of the complex organization of biofilms from the interactions of its parts, individual cells and their environment, is the aim of the individual-based modelling (IbM) approach. This IbM is version 2 of BacSim, a model of Escherichia coli colony growth, which was developed into a two-dimensional multi-substrate, multi-species(More)
The first full-scale anammox reactor in the world was started in Rotterdam (NL). The reactor was scaled-up directly from laboratory-scale to full-scale and treats up to 750 kg-N/d. In the initial phase of the startup, anammox conversions could not be identified by traditional methods, but quantitative PCR proved to be a reliable indicator for growth of the(More)
Ten years ago, an anaerobic ammonium oxidation ('anammox') process was discovered in a denitrifying pilot plant reactor. From this system, a highly enriched microbial community was obtained, dominated by a single deep-branching planctomycete, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans. Phylogenetic inventories of different wastewater treatment plants with anammox(More)
In the aerobic phase of the biological phosphorus removal process, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, produced during anaerobic conditions, is used for cell growth, phosphate uptake, and glycogen formation. A metabolic model of this process has been developed. The yields for growth, polyphosphate and glycogen formation are quantified using the coupling of all these(More)
A mathematical model for nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) processes in a single biofilm reactor (CANON) was developed. This model describes completely autotrophic conversion of ammonium to dinitrogen gas. Aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation were modeled together with ANAMMOX. The sensitivity of kinetic constants and biofilm and(More)
The influence of different carbon sources (acetate to propionate ratios), temperature and pH levels on the competition between polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms (PAO and GAO, respectively) was evaluated using a metabolic model that incorporated the carbon source, temperature and pH dependences of these microorganisms. The model(More)
The theoretical basis and quantitative evaluation of a new approach for modeling biofilm growth are presented here. Soluble components (e.g., substrates) are represented in a continuous field, whereas discrete mapping is used for solid components (e.g., biomass). The spatial distribution of substrate is calculated by applying relaxation methods to the(More)
This paper reviews the long-standing bulking sludge problem in activated sludge systems. Despite the extensive amount of research that has been done on bulking sludge, it still occurs world-wide and a comprehensive solution does not seem to be available. Bulking sludge can be approached as a microbiological problem (occurrence of a specific filamentous(More)